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Астероиды - подушка безопасности ЗемлиThat on Earth at the time originated and evolved life, has the merit of not only the Sun and our planet. Us has helped gas giant Jupiter and the asteroid belt. It was he, standing on the border "zone icing", protect our planet from space cold, able at once to destroy it all alive.

We are living on this Earth, first of all, I would like to highlight the exceptional combination of physical and chemical properties of our planet - as on it there is a life! Indeed, we have implemented a very unique situation on the Ground presents all chemical elements, has been developed earlier supernova stars in the early Universe, formed the earth's crust under which still seething molten magma, embodying a solid core in the center of the Earth! Dynamo mechanism into unattainable depths of the Earth creates a magnetic shell dipole configuration.

This magnetic field protects the planet from harmful for the life of galactic and solar cosmic rays, and ultraviolet and x-ray radiation of the Sun. However, protective plasma and gas shells of the Earth are, in addition to the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the troposphere. The lower the Earth's atmosphere is saturated with water vapor - he works as a kind of mixer, smoothing temperature contrasts. Great oceans to keep warm and submit it to the atmosphere. Energy parent stars, our Sun, maintains the necessary temperature conditions for the existence and development of complex life forms...

A balanced combination of factors on Earth, according to scientists, appeared in unity with changing Solar system.

The role of natural satellite, the moon is extremely important - stabilization of rotation of the Earth provided by the Moon, its orbital parameters and mass. Royal Jupiter, with a powerful gravity, also it is impossible to ignore, as he picks up small body and can change the parameters of their orbits when passing. This giant has demonstrated astronomers in July 1994 a unique experiment capture great comet of chumacero-levy, which is divided into 21 fragment and fell on its surface from 16 to 22 July 1994! And the family of satellites "king of the gods" includes captured the body, certainly "kidnapped" and became the moons of the giant. It turned out that not only so obvious important partners in the assessments of the origin of life on our planet.

According to a study by Rebecca Martin from the University of Colorado at boulder and astronomer Mario Livio of the Scientific Institute of space telescopes in Baltimore, Maryland, never underestimate the value of the asteroid belt. The authors suggest that the size, location and weight of this group of objects generated from the protoplanetary disk of the Sun under the gravitational influence of neighbor-Jupiter, could have some influence on the development of life in our planet.

Summarizing this concept, we can assume that the same combination of desired factors, the authors call their right, in systems of stars similar to the Sun, can contribute to the emergence of life on the exoplanet, like our Earth!

In application to asteroids - scientists and humanity today often evaluate their potential risk, the probability of which is defined for all of asteroids and comets whose trajectory lies in the vicinity pass the Earth in its orbit. But in the distant history of the Solar system, formed when a planet, asteroid matter participated in the evolution of the Earth, supplying water and organics!

Continuing the study, the authors found that the formation of the right asteroid belt necessary giant planet type of Jupiter, located exactly in the right place. Cosmic review of such systems has shown that such examples are rare. In other systems, the chances of the origin of life is significantly reduced.

From the analysis it follows that the interaction of Jupiter and the asteroid belt in our Solar system is not an accident. Symbolic identification is the boundary "zone icing", conditional feature, behind which the Sun's energy is not enough for the existence of water in the liquid phase, water crystallizes and turns into ice. This border is the asteroid belt. For this border on the surfaces of celestial bodies - only ice, and the existence of liquid water is possible only under the icy crust, like on Jupiter's moon Europe.

Millions of years ago emerging "king of the gods" absorbed from the environment part of matter asteroid belt: ice, stone and metal fragments considerable weight. Residual components of the asteroid belt is not formed planet - perhaps because of the perturbations introduced emerging Jupiter. That could be their influence.

Moreover, with certainty implies that the orbit of Jupiter must be located in close proximity in relation to the asteroid belt, but not to enter into his space! If this condition is violated - the bombing of asteroid fragments of earth-like planets would monstrous destruction in the evolutionary transformation of internal objects that could be an obstacle in the development of nascent life on Earth. And if the orbit of Jupiter defended too far, the asteroid belt would have remained more dense and massive.

The alleged contents of matter at the early stages of the asteroid belt could even surpass the mass of the Earth, but Jupiter gradually overtook her, the lion's share as very slow shift orbit to the Sun. So was conducted "thinning", resulting from the total mass of the asteroid belt have only 1% of the original substance, but the asteroid belt obtained its current form, compact size, and density.

"Imagining ideal conditions, we need such a giant planet like Jupiter, which exists near the asteroid belt, without going to its limits, " explains Mario Livio. - If a giant Jupiter migrated through the zone, that would have been a disaster. On the other hand, the option of absence of migration big planet is also not good, because the asteroid belt would be too massive. It would be so much bombardment by asteroids that life could not evolve in such precarious conditions".

Using our Solar system as a model, Rebecca Martin and Mario Livio found that the asteroid belt in the same Solar system entities must always be located in the "zone icing". To verify this assumption, the authors have created a model of the protoplanetary disks around young stars and found the location line "zone icing" disks based on a given mass of the Central star.

The proposal was subject to verification on the basis of a telescope Spitzer (Spitzer), this study 90 distant stars that have asteroid belt, judging by the spectral data. The temperature in the asteroid belt is such that it meets the border "zone icing".

The researchers then turned to data about 520 discovered a giant exoplanets. It turned out that among them only 19 revolve beyond the external borders "zone icing". The vast majority considered exoplanets formed in remote limits, and then moved very close to its star. Their asteroid belt has long been destroyed. By calculations of the authors successful (as in the Solar system) asteroid belt may have no more than 4% of the star systems that have a huge planet. The author's study ends with conclusions about the original structure of our planetary system, its components, which provided the possibility of life on planet Earth.

"Our research shows that only a tiny part of planetary systems observed to date, perhaps there is a giant planet in the correct location to recreate "right" asteroid belt, contributing to the potential development of life on the neighbouring rocky planet, " said Martin, lead author of the study. - From the study, we can assume that our Solar system is somewhat uncommon".
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