Viewings: 3973The history of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt so long that historians for convenience divided it into several periods, each of which is comparable in duration with the history of any European powers.
The ancient Kingdom (2707 - 2170 BC) - the epoch of the great pyramids.
The middle Kingdom (2119 - 1793 BC) - the development of writing.
The new Kingdom (1550 - 1069 BC) - a time of great architects.
Later the Kingdom (715 - 332 BC) was the period of Persian domination.
After the end of each great epoch were a time of chaos, separation of Egypt into two parts. These times are characterized as a period of decay.
The first period of the collapse (or the First transition period) - 2170 - 2019 BC
The second period of the collapse (or Second transition period) - 1794/93 - 1550 BC
The third period of the collapse (or Third transition) - 1070/69 - 714 don. E.
But in General, the history of Egyptian pharaohs began in prehistoric age, which is usually defined as the Predynastic period, after which the time has come Early dynasties - about 3100 - 2700 years BC (I and II dynasty - 3100-2700 years BC). In those very ancient times Egypt gradually developed their high culture. Finally ended the dynasty of Ancient Egypt at the Greek kings of the Ptolemies (332 - 30 BC). In 30 BC Egypt became a Roman province. Famous tsarina Cleopatra is considered the last ruler on the throne of Pharaoh.
The first Pharaoh AXA (or Less) of the rules about 3032 to 3000 B.C. and was able to unite the two parts of the country - Upper and Lower Egypt.
All ages are divided into dynasty, who ruled 3000 years - a total of 31 dynasty. All chronology of Ancient Egypt rather relative, because over years, and in the absence of precise data, historians have to use indirect indications to compare different sources. Therefore, the dates of Board of pharaohs are presumably in different historical sources can be found data, distinguished for decades.
The list of pharaohs of Ancient Egypt were discovered in the temples. The oldest such a list refers to the Fifth dynasty (2498 - 2345 years BC), the so - called Palermo stone. On the slab of black basalt, split into several pieces of different sizes, cut the list of pharaohs of Ancient Egypt for 6 or 7 centuries, from the prehistoric period, i.e. from the end of IV Millennium BC On one of the pieces mentioned some of the latest Egyptian kings Predynastic period (approximately up to 3150 years BC). Ends with a list of Pharaoh Neferirkare, which rules in the middle of the Fifth dynasty. It is noteworthy that on the Palermo stone is not only names of pharaohs, but also describes the most important events that occurred under their rule.
In other list of the pharaohs - out of the temple of Karnak - called all Royal ancestors Thutmose III (XVIII dynasty). Lacking only a few of the pharaohs of the Second period of decay.
The most famous list of ancient Egyptian pharaohs contains the so-called Abidesi list, which is engraved on the stone walls of a temple of Network I in Abydos. There is depicted the Pharaoh of SETI I, which shows his son Ramesses II long rows of cartouches 76 Egypt tsars, since Menes and finishing Network I. the Rulers of the Second period of disintegration, otherwise known as the Second transition period, there is also omitted, as in Karnak.
In Abydos com list no five kings XVIII dynasty: Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, Smenhcara, Tutankhamun and eye (tsarina Hatshepsut was removed, probably by order of Tuthmosis III, and the other four pharaohs concerned to Amurskogo period and were cursed as apostates).
In the List of Saqqara, there are 47 cartouches (originally 58), and there are pharaohs from Anedjib of the First dynasty to Ramses II. The pharaohs of the Second transition period, there is also no.
The detailed list is recognized as the famous Turin Canon. Its age is estimated to specialists, about 1200 years. Initially this list contained 300 names of the pharaohs, but the papyrus during transportation was badly damaged, and many of its fragments have not survived. This is disappointing that missing part meticulously crafted document, which were put down the date of the Board with the exact month and day.
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