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Viewings: 4151Usually, among the unexplained mysteries possible to meet those who was found not enough scientific explanation, or those whose existence is generally impossible to prove. Although these riddles funny, and sometimes frightening to such an extent that may cause the creeps, the most interesting and fascinating mysteries - the mystery of those things or objects whose existence accurately confirmed by science. Despite the fact that this very existence is contrary to all the laws known to man.
Space is the main storehouse of such things: what is it? Dark matter or dark energy? Is there life on other planets? In this list are collected ten scientific mysteries, hidden in the night sky.
10. The star, who would not need to exist
The star in question, called SDSS J102915 +172927. The star rather complicated name and frankly, scientists could call it a little easier. But complicated names has a purpose - they contain the coordinates of the position of the stars in the sky.
In 2011, a group of European astronomers has discovered that star in the constellation Leo. This is a small star is only about 80% of the size of our Sun, and as it is considered, its age is about 13 billion years. As the Universe, such as we know it, about 13.7 billion years old, the star is considered one of the oldest stars. This star is not unusual... except that all our assumptions, it should not exist. The star consists of 99,99993% hydrogen and helium, elements that are themselves too light for condensation and the formation of stars. When these data are entered in any simulation of the formation of stars on super powerful computer, the result always shows that the formation of such a star is impossible. Astronomers are puzzled over how such a star could be formed without the help of heavier elements - the research continues.
9. Star surrounded by spirals
Located about 400 light-years from Earth in the constellation of the Wolf, star SAO 206462 attracted the attention of astronomers in 2011. Surprised them not the star, and the fact that she was surrounded by: had the impression that she had the spiral arms, revolving around it. Themselves spiral often found in space, is normal formation in galaxies, but scientists have never seen a spiral swirled around the planet. Why is this happening? It still remains a mystery - even though the generally accepted theory is that this process is responsible gravity of the planets formed in the dust orbiting the star. However, in support of this theory, there is no evidence - as long as these planets will not truly discovered, that, most likely, will remain a mystery.
8. Forever young star
M 4 (Messier 4 or NGC 6121) is a globular cluster, located about 7 200 light-years from Earth. If the galaxies were life cycles of people, it could be said that the accumulation of 12.2 billion years. For anyone who is not familiar with astronomy: is that all galaxies will eventually become globular clusters, once exhausted all the gas and dust that is used for the formation of stars were. This means that in the later stages of their existence, all the stars will be very old. Studying the stars in this galaxy in September 2012, a team of scientists from Chile have found a star is rich in lithium.
Although lithium is not unusual for a star, this connection is usually burned during the first few billion years of the life cycle of a star. Since the age of most of the existing in this cluster of stars is about 10 billion years, to find the star of that element was tantamount to detect a needle in a haystack. This star as a teenager living in the house for the elderly people: it just does not fit. Scientists believe that the star may have developed a way to replenish your stock of lithium, which keeps it from aging. Many called it "the star of the fountain of youth". As this star replenish their stock of lithium remains a mystery, the solution of which scientists are working still.
7. The star, who has avoided falling into a Black hole
This secret is probably true not one star but several million stars. The Andromeda galaxy is located just 2.5 million light years from Earth, is the closest to us spiral galaxy. Anyone with Apple computer, operating system Lion should have a good idea of how the galaxy. In the center of this galaxy lies a supermassive black hole, as one huge vacuum cleaner, so strong that not even light could break through it.
In 2005, a space telescope "Hubble" focused on the core of the galaxy and found a blue disk in the form of a pancake, rotating in dangerous proximity to the black hole. Further analysis showed that it was not just hot dust: the glow came from millions of young blue stars. These stars are carried around a black hole with a speed of more than 2.3 million kilometers per hour. It's fast enough to fly around the earth along the equator in just 40 seconds. Strange this disc that - given the fact that we think that we know about the power of attraction around black holes - these stars could not exist. The gas that formed them, and the stars themselves were to be torn to pieces by the enormous gravity of the black hole. How they managed to remain unscathed in such a close orbit - remains a mystery.
6. Siamese star?
Star Swift J1822.3-1606" is a special type of stars, known as a neutron star. It is about 20,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus (Ophiuchus). The star can finish its existence in 3 ways: small stars such as our sun end their life, becoming a white dwarf; big stars turn into a neutron star; and the largest stars become black holes. The last two types of stars formed after the largest explosions known in the Universe - supernova.
There are several different types of neutron stars: the Magnetar, with the strong magnetic fields in the Universe, and pulsar, which shoots a beam of electromagnetic radiation of its poles (something like a lighthouse). For many years, all we knew about these stars, told us that they could be only one or another class, but never both. But in 2011 it was discovered that the star "Swift J1822.3-1606" possesses the qualities of both types. This is only the second such a star, with the qualities of ever found, the first one was found a few months earlier.
The mystery? Astronomers cannot explain how a single star could have properties of both types of stars. And although the fact that we have found two such stars in recent years, means that they are more numerous than previously thought, we are still no closer to solving the mystery behind these mysterious stars.
5. The planet, which was to be absorbed
"Wasp 18" is at a distance of 330 light-years from Earth in the constellation of the Phoenix (Phoenix), its mass is greater than the mass of our sun 25%. This is another case where scientists are interested not in itself a star, but that is revolving in its orbit.
In 2009, Coal Helier (Coel Hellier) from Kiel (Keele University) found that around Wasb 18" planet rotates. Called "Wasp 18b" this planet is little more than Jupiter, but harder it 10 times. This weight is only slightly lacking up to the mark in which this planet would be a brown dwarf, that is not initialized star. Puzzling astrophysicists that the planet revolves at a distance of less than 3 million kilometres from its parent star. For comparison, mercury is approximately at a distance of 60 million miles from our sun.
"Wasp 18" is so close to its parent that it spread around its orbit in less than 23 hours and the temperature on its surface is about 2200 Celsius. Being so close, the planet was, ultimately, to get in his sun - but it exists now 680 million years. Given the mass of the star around which it revolves, this planet was to be swallowed up many years ago. As a planet could be formed and stay in a place where it was believed that the planet can not exist? - This is a question that continues to puzzle astronomers.
4. Star dust, found my way home
Given that the "PSR B1257 +12" is a remnant of the supernova explosion, scientists have never expected to find a planet close to it. But they found the whole planetary system. In total it consists of three planets and one of the dwarf planet rotating in orbit of the pulsar. Thinking that they must be common, scientists began to look for planets around other pulsars: however, only one of the pulsar found only one planet rotating around it. It showed that this phenomenon actually very rare.
The process by which may form such planets still not well understood. The most popular theory is that the formation of such planets bit like the formation of our own - is that they came from a planetary disk that originally surrounded the star. However, any material that is involved in the formation of the planet, and even the dust that had to be discarded billions of kilometers into space during a supernova explosion. As gas and dust were able to return to the remaining pulsar, firmly to merge and to have enough material for the formation of the four (!) planets - remains a mystery.
3. Disco Star (Disco Star)
Star V838 Unicorn" is located in the constellation of the Unicorn, which is located at a distance of 20,000 light years from Earth, and was once considered one of the biggest stars in the Universe.
In 2002, the brightness of the stars has become much higher. Scientists have counted, that it is a new star, which was formed as a result of the fact that the remaining core of a dead star (known as a white dwarf) absorbed too much of hydrogen gas from neighboring stars and exploded fantastic flash. Star faded after a few weeks, as predicted by scientists, and was registered as a new star.
But less than a month star glowed brightly light. Due to the fact that the period between the flashes was too short, so you can assume the existence of two separate new stars, the scientists decided to examine it closer. And then they found the puzzle: there was no white dwarf. The star has blown up itself - and continued to flare up and fade for several months. During his very bright eruption, the star became more sun is a million times. At this point, she was one of the brightest stars in the sky.
As a rule, the stars become brighter before his death, but the measurements showed that the star was only a few million years, she was just a baby, if you believe in star years. When the Hubble telescope captured the image of the star after the eruption, scientists saw a big cloud of gas and debris was rapidly carried away from the star. One theory is that the star was faced with something invisible, for example from another star or planet, but scientists are still baffled by this mystery.
Star CFBDSIR 2149 - 0403" is classified as a brown dwarf. The stars of this type could not initialize nuclear fusion in their cores, and grow into a real, burning stars. Although it belongs to a multiple star system called "AB Golden Fish" (AB Doradus) because of its size and weight, many consider it the gas giant. Based on this definition, it turns out that this planet has no parent stars. This phenomenon is discussed in theory, but was extremely rare.
Today is known only four planets that can claim the title of "planet of the tramp". Star CFBDSIR 2149 - 0403 is closest to the Earth at a distance of 130 light-years. Not having the star around which it could be rotating in orbit, the planet moves under the influence of other stars of star systems "AB Golden Fish". This fact does not mean that the planet is a tramp, moving through the spaces of the cosmos in a straight line is a frequent misconception. But as a planet could be a bum without the parent star - remains a mystery.
1. Disappeared star dust
Star "TYC 8241 2652" is at a distance of 450 light-years from Earth in the constellation Centaurus (Centaurs). It is believed that it is of approximately the same size as our Sun. But being at the age of 10 million years, it is still very little in comparison with our star, which is 4.5 billion years old. From 1983 to 2008, the astronomers studied a bright ring of dust around the star on the subject of possible formation of planets, believing that they will be able to get some idea of the formation of our own Solar system. But when the time came observations of this star in 2009, scientists were amazed when they looked in their telescopes, they saw nothing except the stars. Once distinct, glowing disc of dust was gone. He did not leave behind any planets or at least traces of where it went, it just disappeared. Scientists have been puzzled. When asked about this phenomenon, astronomer Carl Melis (Carl Melis) simply said, "we Have no satisfactory explanation for what happened around this star".
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