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Почему мы верим гадалкам,гороскопам и предсказаниям?It has been numerously stated that the speakers like "your destiny in this year" are often collective creativity edition, fortune-tellers simply good psychologists, and signs of the Zodiac so moved in the sky for several millennia that all ancient settlements have to be adjusted. But people still believe in the mysterious and unsubstantiated.

Failed end of the world once again forced to think about why people believe in all kinds of mystic - divination, palmistry, astrology? Actually the answer to this question is, and it is not so complicated as it may seem at first sight. In 1948, a psychologist and Professor Bertram Forer spent over their own students experiment.

He gave them a special personality test - ostensibly to its results to conduct in-depth analysis of the nature of each. However, instead of individual results he gave everyone the same vague text taken from a horoscope. It said"You really need to get other people to like and admire you. You are pretty self-critical. You have many hidden features that you never used to your advantage. Although you have some personal weakness, you are, in General, is able to neutralize. Disciplined and confident-looking, actually you tend to get nervous and unsure of themselves. Sometimes you cover serious doubts, have you made the right decision or did the right thing to do. You prefer some variety, scope and limitations arouse discontent.

Also you proud, think independently; you do not accept foreign claims on faith without sufficient evidence. You understand that to be too honest with other people - not too wisely. Sometimes you extroverted, friendly and sociable, sometimes - introverted, careful and restrained. Some of your aspirations rather unrealistic. One of your major life goals - stability of"Bolshinstvo students agreed that the text quite accurately describes his character. You can try it for yourself to see that many of the statements you come simply because the text is most vague.

Personality characteristics range from "introverted" to "extroverted", the subject is that "is sure to mean", "an excited feeling insecure", and with regard to the needs in the rapture - who does not feel it in my heart?After how students agreed with astonishing accuracy of the test, Forer revealed to them his deception. Presumably, his disciples forever learned why you should not believe misty horoscope Forer was not limited to joke with students. He classified the principles on which it is easy to construct an equally insightful nalysis" at home. First, the subject must be convinced that the description applicable to him or to a specific group of people, to which he considers himself (these qualities zodiac Lions, brown-eyed, left-handers, and so on).

The vagueness of the characteristics that we have already analyzed, making it applicable to any person, and this raises the Respondent thinking about its fairness: "I really introverted, are proud of their independence of judgement and sometimes feel the uncertainty of hiding it". It is desirable that the subject of the thought of the author characteristics figure authoritatively press successfully cope with the role - "printed in the newspaper...". And the last - the description should mainly be present positive characteristics. Using these five principles, "the exact astroprognoz" or "character portrait" may be people who knew nothing about astrology or Psihologiya simple truth at the end of 50-ies again illustrated in his experiment American psychologist Ross Stagner.

He gave to fill 68 HR different companies psychological questionnaire that allows you to make a detailed psychological description of personality, after which amounted to one common to all fake characteristics, using 13 phrases from different horoscopes. Then Stagner asked subjects to read characteristics, telling them they are developed on the basis of data psychological Testarossa each phrase participants experience should note how she, in their opinion, is correct and how truly reflects their character. Grading of assessments were offered the following: strikingly true, true, quite true, middle, the half, rather wrong and completely wrong. More than a third of those present felt that their psychological portraits were sketched strikingly true, 40% is quite true, and almost no one thought his characteristic completely wrong. And these were the heads of personnel departments, i.e. people, it would seem, is experienced in the assessment of personal qualities!What characteristically, the most faithful members considered positive statements, for example: "You prefer some variety in life, a certain degree of change and start to miss, if you infringe various limitations and strict rules"; "Although you have some personal shortcomings, you are usually able to cope with them". In contrast, the least faithful were recognized these two statements: "In Your sex life is not without some problems" and "Your hopes sometimes be rather unrealistic"Podobnye study was repeated again and again, and the result was the same - people believed pleasant vague phrases.

In psychology this is called the Forer effect (in honor of the author of the experiment on students) or by the Barnum effect (after the famous in the nineteenth century, American entrepreneur and owner of the circus of Phineas Barnum). This showman and hoaxer was fond of saying that "every minute on Earth is born one dupe". The motto of the program of the circus and fairground booths was: "we Have something for everyone". Isn't that the vagueness reminds horoscopes?Effect Barnum-Forer is that people tend to take at its own expense General, vague, banal statements, mostly positive (but without blatant flattery), if he is told that they received as a result of studying some obscure him factors and if he is sure that these statements describe him personally. To create such confidence is easy - simply select a sign: date of birth, hair or eye color, and so on. People flattering attention to their person, especially if it is pay attention to some "experts"constituting horoscope or characteristic for requesting entity.

There are additional factors contributing to the success of horoscopes and other "predictions of the fate". First, the astrologer's nice to hint that he has some special knowledge - for example, the mystery of the right of divination is passed in his family from generation to generation, or he personally talked with the priests of disappearing tribe, who gave him his secret...second, the provision of detailed data. Here is the effect of rationalization: people are less likely to believe an astrologer who will begin to predict just by looking at them, but with much more seriousness would react to the words of the one who will require to announce the exact date, time and place of birth. Man has created the illusion that the accuracy of the provided data affects the accuracy diagnosable that, over time, faith in the accuracy of the forecast is growing stronger. The most vague statements we forget, but that "true", long delayed in memory.

Besides, "the ancient prophecy" looks much more impressive recent. This clearly showed the excitement around the end of the world 2012, supposedly predicted by the Maya priests. It is indicative that to talk about this very ancient prophecy began only after 2000, when the next world, scheduled for early terms, otmenili people, at least sometimes reading Newspapers and books, aware that only in the last hundred years the death of mankind promised dozens of times. According clairvoyant, the prophets, and "contactees" with other planets (as they call themselves), as well as historians and science fiction writers, the population of the Earth has long had to disappear. Apocalypse was waiting in the 60's, then in the 90's, then, of course, in 2000-m When the next prediction does not come true, people switch their attention to the next date. What makes us rapidly to discuss the end of the world to fear and even wait for him? Psychologists believe that in such a seemingly global theme of death around the world is still the same - each person to his own isnad the topic of the next world end in December 2012 became popular, people spread jokes about that now, finally, we can safely borrow and get involved in a mortgage to pay bills will still be there. According to specialists, some people are happy "cling" for some event in the future, which removes them responsible for what they do in the present.

For some reason they can't afford to live as you want, right now. The supposed end of the world gives them a kind of indulgence, do anything, to condemn and stop nobody uspeete the end of the world and has the communicative function. People love to feel part of a group, sharing their concerns, fears and beliefs. In real life, find "their" is not so simple: in adults, accomplished people too many differences and rough on all of their opinions. But the concern before possible "the end of all", as any threat, perfectly team rallies, be it a company of friends, a group of colleagues in the office, or a large family.

It is also gratifying to realize their involvement in global events is to make you feel znachimaya if the prophecies came true, proudly to say the phrase: "I caught the end of the world" - would already have. But to dream about it was so nice... But that's another prophecy about the Apocalypse was false, and everyone will have to decide what to do with my life, to refer ourselves to the extrovert or introvert and how to spend the coming year. Although you can refer to the astrologer, or read the next predictions about the end of the world. Say, the next one "appointed" by 2021...

Jan Filimonova
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