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Viewings: 4043If you are reading now these lines of the article, it means you are still alive. We are all alive. And everything was in vain. The day after the promised end of the world no one thinks that predicted our ancient Maya and what they actually had in mind for this calendar. Finishing it today is December 21, 2012 (actually - December 23, just then, for the convenience of astronomical calculations, by the end of the calendar did the winter solstice).
And just these Mayan us mere mortals, I...
Should be born a genius to understand. As was Yuri Knorozov, the only man in the world, who their ancient writings. Not the Americans, not the Germans - a Russian scientist. He grasped the secret of one of the most mysterious civilizations of antiquity.
A month before the end of the world - 19 November 2012 - Yuri Knorozov would have turned 90 years.
To old age he never visited his beloved Mexico. The one, which worked all his life. Infinitely bitterly joked about the fact that all of the Commission, who were going about to release it or not release themselves already there went again.
On his favorite pictures which he preferred to publish in print and show the journalists, - the man with the demonic face of Professor Moriarty and with the cat in her arms. The Look Of The Sphinx. Sight in itself.
The tragedy of genius and society. Loneliness and crowds.
A strange man. Strange. Other - those who could not understand the logic of thinking, - said the mysterious. Friends and colleagues - ironic, sarcastic, sharp-tongued, sarcastic, intolerant of others ' stupidity and idiocy. So maybe he'd be laughed at this trick with the "end of the world", on which swept the whole world is crazy if he survived...
However, without deciphering the Mayan writings, Yuri Knorozov and could not think what it all means!
"The more that the Maya themselves anything at all about the end of the world did not say," laughs Galina Ershova, a student of Yuri Knorozov, Professor of Russian state humanitarian University, Director of the Mesoamerican center. Uwith, Director of the Center and epigraphs Mayan name of Yuri Knorozov Xcaret (Mexico), President of the Russian-Guatemalan research center Mayan name of Yuri Knorozov.
Over the past few days in her office with Indian paintings and maps of Mexico on the walls - the pilgrimage pesky journalists. And all about the same. And then there's the end of the world: the University pipe burst!
- Tortured you by the end of the world? - I ask.
- How! - says Galina Gavrilovna.
Well, we have to wait for just one day and then have a rest. And on the new... Mankind loves periodically to come up with a different terrible "pugalki", then to be frightened by him and scaring others, sitting with popcorn in front of the screen of the cinema, which is some regular "2012".
We do not know the world in which we live. That's scary. The unknown. Where do we go? Why? Hang about in the dark for thousands of years. Periodically, feeling for nanokeramiki truth and meaning that surrounds us.
But there they were intelligent answers and questions, singles, ahead of his time.
Instead of gold
And indeed from his childhood he was not like everyone else. Across. In school he was always trying to exclude for bad behavior, for stubborn nature, which annoyed the teachers. Yuri Knorozov was answered back my teachers and strongly demonstrated his temper. And yet - had a phenomenal memory, which allowed him pages to quote your favorite books.
Parents raised him in bekhterevsky system. Having got acquainted in bekhterevsky lectures - created the Russian sociology and pedagogy, a well-known psychiatrist Bekhterev believed that only the study of how man develops, makes it possible to grow new man, they gave birth to five children. Two of them became doctors of Sciences, winners of numerous awards, three candidates.
Entered the Kharkov University, was in the occupation (he will not be able to forgive until the end of life); 43-m, coming from the environment, was able to recover already in the Moscow state University, historical faculty, where he was fond of history of the ancient civilizations of the East, linguistics, Ethnography. Did ancient shamanic cults.
1945 met near Moscow, simple operator, never took Berlin - although that is so often put him: what exactly from Berlin, as the main military trophy, almost from the blazing fire of the German bunker, and he made two precious books written in ancient Mexican times. "In fact, these books are safely kept in the Lenin library", explains Galina Ershova, his pupil.
Poverty and devastation. People not to survive. And Knorozov tries to read the old tomes.
Ancient mysteries of letters, foreign, forgotten, extinct long ago civilization. What is behind them? Dream of people composing these manuscripts? What gods prayed when he died?..
Robbing America conquistadors with a frenzy burned foreign obscure books - a pile of books; how trivial stuff, they threw into the fire with a different culture, as happens in all wars and in all times, - the Old World were only required power and gold...
Only three manuscripts of the ancient Maya survived in Europe in General.
"A message about the Affairs of Yucatan" Franciscan monk of the XVI century, Diego de Landa and "Codes of the Maya in Guatemala publication brothers Villacorta. Knorozov, who found the manuscript was not implemented that Maya.
So, it's just fate, that these books have come to him.
"I lived in a hostel Yuri Knorozov. He gave science: received scholarship and immediately bought books, and then we all borrowed on food, eating water and bread" - recalled the famous archaeologist, Sevan Weinstein.
He became interested in ancient writing systems, deciphering the writing Maya, on the mystery which pored then the best minds of mankind.
"Deciphering the writing Maya - an unsolvable problem" - wrote in his article in the well-known German scholar Paul Shellgas.
Knorozov have read, to be outraged and challenged snobbish world scientist community. Why can't decipher?..
"You will live to see the year 2000"
Defended his candidate's thesis took place in Moscow and lasted only three and a half minutes. After that 30-year-old Yuri Valentinovich was not recognized by the applicant and immediately doctor of Sciences.
29 March 1955 he went to this protection and did not know how it will end, admitted even arrested and charged with espionage. According to Marxist-Leninist theory, in pre-Columbian America did not exist States, and consequently, the ancient Mayan could not be and phonetic letters, which insisted Knorozov.
Phonetic writing - letter graphic symbol assigned to a certain sound. According to apologists of Marxism, this letter can develop only in a class society.
And here - the ancient priests, human sacrifice and stuff...
That Yuri Knorozov, no, not decrypt, but at least come close to the Mayan mystery, which was kept century, nobody believed he.
He settled in the Museum at the Institute of Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR - in the long and narrow, like a coffin, bathroom. Work Desk, soldier's bed and books from floor to ceiling. On the walls hung a Mayan hieroglyphs. Drank a lot. As all Russians, in the opinion of Americans. Well, what about those that are its characteristics did not know.
The head of the state school of mayanistics Eric Thompson, having heard about the results of the thesis young Russian scientist, in his message to mayanist Michael Ko cynically called all around "witches, flying riding in the midnight sky by order of the jury", and argued that decryption of emails Maya Knorozov wrong. "Well, Mike, you're going to live till 2000. Put this message for the introduction of "Maya Hieroglyphic writing" and decide then if I was right..."
Michael To have kept the letter and the first day of 2000, I read it, said, "Thompson was wrong. Rights were Knorozov".
So what was his breakthrough?
Any language is a system, it obeys certain rules. Knowing these rules, patterns, you can unravel an ancient letter.
Taking the three surviving manuscripts Maya - those that were stored in Paris, Madrid and Dresden libraries in their research Knorozov relied on the regularity of the use of marks in the letter by relating them to the patterns of the language of the written texts. At the dictation of the alphabet in the manuscript de Landa marks the Maya were not recorded sounds, and the names of Spanish letters.
The manuscript was the priestly service. That is, the calendar of holidays, religious and others, and what sacrifices need to bring and what to do in these days. Nothing particularly terrible, common agricultural schedule for the year. And yet - knowledge of astronomy: the Maya priests they were excellent.
The Mayan calendar is found in 50-ies on the narrow high panel from the town of Tortuguero in the state of Tabasco, as explored in the 70-ies of the last century, " says student Knorozov, Galina Ershova. - Part of the monument was stolen and brought to the United States. The inscription on the panel consists of a continuous date is after all the calendar. Judging by other texts Maya, in these places there were good astronomical priestly school. Calendar describes 13 of large cycles and ends with the end of the 13th cycle.
Approximately 21 December. Plus or minus two days. For astronomers Maya it was just a transition of the vernal equinox in the constellation of the Jaguar in the constellation Monkeys, in our opinion-from Fishes in Aquarius.
- Even now I like to write about the terrible descent of the Godhead beaulon Joke, and the Maya astronomers it's just the planet Mars (in the cycle 780 days), which on December 24, will reverse the movement, continues Galina Ershova. - Actually, the Mayan calendar appeared before the Maya. After all, their civilization is the heir to a more ancient civilizations of Mesoamerica. In the second and first Millennium BC there was the Olmec civilization - they designed this calendar. It begins with August 3114 year up to ad.
- Started from this date on mathematical considerations that all figures came together and turned round. To the beginning of the era of the Jaguar, roughly coinciding with the beginning of our era, had to figure 126.96.36.199.0. Everybody loves all such date. Before the beginning of our era Olmecs saw that the point of the vernal equinox is transferred from one sign of the zodiac in the other. Earth is spinning like a very slow spinning top, and the earth's axis describes circles like the top of the top - one revolution in 26 thousand years. During this time, the point of sunrise on days of equinoxes and solstices bypasses all zodiacal constellation, passing each of them is approximately 2000 years, is the God of the Sun, as did the Maya, in turn, is staying with the gods, which we called the zodiac constellations.
Events such as the transition of the vernal equinox from one to another constellation, noticed in many advanced cultures. We have the story of Jesus Christ imbued with symbolic beginning of the age of Pisces, and the Maya this sign of the zodiac called the Jaguar.
The whole Mayan calendar fixated on the number 13, and the cycles, the last of which lasts from 3114 year up to ad to 2012, also 13. The end of the calendar, coming in the days of the winter solstice in December 2012, was recorded beautiful figure 188.8.131.52.0.
So any predictions future descendants of the Maya did not do, especially at the Millennium. It is understandable. Afraid of the end of the world tomorrow, and what will happen after many centuries, whom it frightened?..
He died in poverty
In 1956 Knorozov "released" at the international Congress of americanists in Denmark. Since then until the beginning of perestroika he was not left, not even suspecting that came to his name invitations. He was blamed for the fact that during the war were in the zone of occupation. Actually terrible folly: the man all his life engaged in Latin America, in that very America could not get!
Over time, foreign scientists came to terms with the realities of the USSR and became to pay a visit to Leningrad, to Knorozov. At the height of the cold war the American school of mayanistics finally established the principle of deciphering.
In 1963 he published monograph Knorozov "Written language of the Maya". In 1975 he received true recognition in the homeland: Yuri Valentinovich was awarded the State prize of the USSR.
Himself Knorozov always ironically treated their abilities interpreter and made great discoveries:
"When I was five years old, brothers hit me on the forehead krokety ball... Eyesight was restored, albeit with difficulty. Can give recommendations: future interpreters to bump on the head, only it is not clear how. You can experiment to take control group and whoever ends of the give, that's the way!"
All his conscious life, to the last hour, studied the language and culture of the ancient Maya. Was dictionary, translated books, inscriptions on the monuments, statues, learned myths and legends...
Through his translations were obtained unique information about the structure of the underground Pantheon Mexican gods, ideas about where to go the souls of the dead on narcotic divination rituals, rites of dispatch messengers to the gods...
...For his contribution to the development of science Yuri Knorozov was awarded the highest order of the Mexican Republic - the order of the Aztec eagle. It personally handed him the President of the country. And the Mexican Embassy during the life of the scientist financed the creation of the Mesoamerican research Center named Knorozov at the Russian state humanitarian University.
Only one-the only time in the early 90's, Knorozov was allowed to travel to distant, unknown Guatemala. Up alone on the pyramid of Tikal, he stood at the top and said nothing...
In Guatemala and Mexico, he was considered almost a God. And at home...
Yuri Knorozov not began in March 1999. After him there was no family, no children - nothing but ancient manuscripts. He died alone in the corridor, one of the city hospitals: on the background of a sudden stroke began pneumonia. Hall of the Kunstkammer for farewell to a great scholar management has chosen to provide no - bid farewell to the genius of the few friends gathered at the close of the hospital's morgue.
...For each of us will one day come to its own end of the world.
material: Ekaterina Sazhneva
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