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Viewings: 5237Italian historians suppose that the fashion for images of orchids on the works of art and decoration of premises appeared much earlier Renaissance, as it was considered. After analyzing many ornaments era of Imperial Rome, the scientists found that this flower was very popular among the ancient artists, sculptors and their clients.
Chinese proverb says: "When you are angry - paint bamboo, when happy - orchids". So the Romans, though Chinese literacy is trained and were not too loved to depict orchids. After detailed study of the images on the ancient temples, the experts concluded that the appearance in Western art these eye-catching colors, endowed "loving" symbols, is not because of a Renaissance, with the times of Caesar and Augustus. In fact, according to researchers, with the advent of Christianity, the popular image orchids - because of its overt sexuality - in the fine arts decreased.
Let me remind you that orchids (Orchideae) are herbaceous plants from class monocots. Among them there are both wild and "home" forms. Etymological dictionary shows that the word "Orchid" comes from the Greek orchis - testes, testicles. In cultures of different Nations of orchide was the epitome of male and female sexual organs. Probably, for this reason, with the triumph of Christianity image orchids ceased to be so popular, as in ancient times, and the revival of interest in him began with the advent of the Renaissance, when the flowers came to symbolize the friendship, power, beauty and grace.
The language of flowers Orchid white color means pure love, red - passion. In astrology Orchid is a symbol of the Sun, as this flower is born under the constellation of Pisces. Druids days orchids - from 3 to 12 November. In China Orchid seeds were used in the manufacture of a love potion. In Russian there are several original names orchids: Lyuba (in the sense of "favorite"), lady's slipper, fragrant orchids, wild orchids. Orchids are well studied by biologists and florists, however, their "phytochoria" - that is the symbolic meaning in art - while not numerous.
According to the site Science Online, Italian botanist Julia Caneva (Giulia Caneva) from the University of Rome together with a team of students has started to establish a database of Italian works of art containing floral motifs. Among the collected and considered artifacts were paintings, tapestries, bas-reliefs, cameos and much more. Subsequently, the team began the study of what are the plants pictured sculptors and drew artists.
Most researchers were struck by the fact that the image of the Italian orchids (in nature there are about a hundred varieties) appeared much earlier than previously thought. Critics confidently attributed images of orchids to the period known in the history of Italian Quattrocento - to 1400 m years. However, were suddenly found images relating to the year 46 BC, when by order of Julius Caesar in Rome was built the Temple of Venus Mom (Venus Genetrix) as the ancestor kind Julio. Concerns about the cult of Venus Mom subsequently took on the adopted son of Caesar, Octavian, later dubbed August.
At least three orchids represented among dozens of other plants luxury stone altar Ara Pacis Augustae - August Altar of the World. The decision to build the altar in honor of the goddess of Peace and the August was adopted by the Senate in 13 year B.C. after the victorious return of the Emperor of Gaul and Spain. The solemn consecration of the altar, built on the favorite place of walks of Romans - the field of Mars, was held on 30 January in the year 9 B.C.. The altar was rebuilt in 1938 Mussolini, collecting original fragments and their copies. On the outside surrounding the altar wall is skilled ornament in the form of climbing plants and a relief image on mythological subjects (relief Telluri), and an image procession in honor of laying the Foundation of the altar. The inside walls are decorated with rich girlandy frieze.
In the third and fourth centuries, when Christianity gained indisputable authority, orchids disappeared from fine art. Julia Kanev suggests that this plant has provided the pagan symbolism, which is directly connected with sexuality. American specialist on the history of jewelry Kristin Nicole Edrington (Kristin Nicole Edrington), who recently defended his master's thesis on the subject of images of orchids in the jewelry art at the turn of XIX and XX centuries, commented maniacal passion of the ancient Romans to this flower, in the sense that this is nothing new: "the same Yesterday, and today, orchids are still the object of insanity".
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