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Карникс - труба галлов, пугавшая римлянEight years ago the French archaeologists have found in the village of Tinteniac ancient treasure, consisting of more than 500 iron and bronze fragments. They all represent balances kurnikov - legendary musical instruments of the Gauls. Before scientists could not find a single whole karnick. But now the reconstruction was completed and the instrument can be played.

Fearless Roman legionaries trembled, hearing the sounds of a brass instrument. Original name combat the hearth of ancient Gauls unknown to historians: we are assured that Barbara and under torture refused to give even his name. The most common type known to us under the Latin name "carnex". This is a kind of psychological weapon was borrowed from the iron age Celts, who lived from 300 BC to 200 ad on the territory of modern France. Scientists were able to recreate it.

Karnik (carnyx) was a long horn with socket outlet in the form of the head and shepherd of some wild animal for the most part, boar or boar. If to take into account that wind instrument was used for religious ceremonies dedicated to Celtic God Cavtatu, this symbolism is quite clear. In Roman Gaul God of Testate identified with aggressive Mars, and the image of the deity in the form of wild boar was typical of the Celts.

Karnicki are mentioned in the description of the attack of the Celts on Delphi in 279 year BC, commentaries on the Gallic war" Julius Caesar and in his autobiography, the Roman Emperor Claudius. Diodorus about Sicilian 60-30 of years before our era, said: "To the same pipe them savagely extraordinary; pipe in them, they make the unpleasant sound that goes so well with the roar of the battles".

Author "General history" Greek historian Polybius, describing how the barbarians were fearful of the Romans, including said: "the Celts were scared of their combat system and noise. Indeed, the number of trumpeters and svirelka have incredibly high, and when all the army at once sang war song, rose so strong and unusual noise that not only could hear the sounds of flute and voice soldiers, but sounding seemed the surroundings, repeating echo".

The appearance of the instrument known for minting coins of later latenian (La T?ne) culture. One of the most famous images scene is richly decorated with silver vessel, Dating back to I century B.C. and related to late latenian culture - the so-called pot from Gundestrup. Karnik was not a secret weapon, which the Romans hunted as the Nazis during the Soviet "Katyusha". On the column of Troyan in Rome broken warriors-Dacians with like carnex tools. Something similar was with him, and the Roman lituus (lituus) - the curved pipe.

However, not a single of carnica archaeologists have not found. The impression that the instruments deliberately damaged so that they could not benefit from a mere mortal. In 2004, in the village of Tinteniac (Tintignac) in the French Department of Correze (Corr?ze) treasure was found, consisting of more than 500 iron and bronze fragments representing the remains of seven Chernikov.

French archaeologist Christophe the Manik (Christophe Maniquet) from the National Institute for archaeological research (Institut National de Recherches Arch?ologiques Pr?ventives) burned with the desire to recreate the sound that drove the Romans crazy, or was used to call the God of Testate.

According to British newspaper the Guardian, to restore carnex had about a 40 fragments found at different times (mostly in the XIX century) in different countries - England, Scotland, Germany and Italy. In the result of hard work could wind instrument height of 180 centimeters. To recreate the sound of the revived carnica archaeologists addressed to physicists from the laboratory for the study of the phenomena of acoustics at the University of the French city of Le Mans (Le Mans). The acoustic experts had to work with the remake, not reconstructed ancient artifact. Here they needed help manufacturers of musical instruments.

In the laboratory, headed by Joel Gilbert (Joel Gilbert), came to the conclusion that Karnik has a unique harmonious tune. Using the root note, musician could modulate the sound. However, the copy of the brass instrument was far from perfect. Because of the length of the main sound he had went low. It turned out that Karnik was primitivnyi tool that was contrary to all known information about him. Then historians have put forward a hypothesis about the incomplete conformity of copies - it was clearly missing some necessary element.

Recreated on a computer model of an ancient wind instrument allowed to mathematically calculate the optimal length. As a result, carnex we had to build using the mouthpiece. Experimented with two: 10 - and 20-inch. This allowed to make lower sound and change harmony resonance. The Manik already wants to do the second, enlarged version of karnick. Additional 10 centimeters will allow, according to Joel Gilbert, "make carnex more powerful, and it will become easier to play".

How would menacingly not heard Karnik, the legions of Caesar defeated hordes of Asterixis and Obeliksa. Another thing, if it were possible to recreate the trumpets of Jericho. But here they are, most likely, and looked like a real, not a psychological weapon. From musical instruments may burst eardrums and not to resist the psyche, but built on the conscience of the fortress walls is unlikely to collapse from the sound.
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