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Viewings: 6107About tulips we know a lot. Every man also gave women the delicate bouquets of spring flowers. We have heard about "cholpanovich revolutions" in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. But few people know that in history there were economic tulipanova crises, and the first financial pyramid is also associated with these flowers. Tulips even saved the people from starvation...
Wild tulips Asia
The true homeland of tulips is not Holland, as is commonly believed, and Central Asia. To this day, in the valleys of the Tian Shan mountains, in the fields of China, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Altai it is possible to see wild tulips. While Kazakhstan is one of the core areas of distribution of these flowers in the world. Of more than 100 species of tulips 38 in its original form grow there. The most beautiful sight I've ever seen in my life, " Lily of the desert on the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, all covered with red flowers.
Of course, the ancient nomads were not raised flower beds - with nomadic way of life was very difficult. But admired spring steppe, covered with red flowers, and composed songs and legends. They said that the first Tulip increased blood the last dragon. Old argued that delicate flower grows out of the body of the killed in the battle of the warrior. How many in the steppe red tulips, as many fighters laid down in this field life.
Travel to Europe
For the first time began to cultivate wild tulips, brought from the steppe territories, in Ancient Persia. Cruel and fierce king Cambyses loved roses were grown in his garden and other colors, including tulips. Although most work was done by slaves gardener, the king himself was not averse to tend the plants.
Kambiz, famous for its ferocity, respectful of the flowers, and gardeners, who committed the slightest slip, punish with a painful punishment.
Now it is difficult to determine were the ancestors of the first garden plants, but, according to many scientists, it was wild tulips Gesner and Schrenk, growing in the foothills of Zaili-ski Alatau.
Loved tulips Turks, and their rulers in their gardens planted these carpets of flowers. At the court was even a special Minister of tulips.
During the night feasts under the open sky on the extensive beds were released turtles attached to the shell lit candles. O-the-wisps among the beautiful flowers were gorgeous.
The Turks called the tulips "Lale" and often their daughters was also called by this name. Lale is still the most popular female name in Turkey.
In the middle of the XVI century envoy of the Austrian Emperor in Turkey ollier de Buspirone sent a large batch of bulbs and seeds of tulips in Vienna. Director of the Vienna garden of medicinal plants was Professor of botany Charles de Laclos, signing the customs of that time Latin name Carolus Clusius. He at once and forever in love with exotic flowers and unselfishly sent out the seeds and bulbs of tulips to all my friends and acquaintances.
But soon his patron Saint, the Emperor Maximilian II, aesthete and a lover of flowers, unexpectedly died, and on the throne zealous Catholic Rudolf II who are not interested in botany and could not tolerate the Protestants at his court.
Clusius went to Holland at Leiden University, where he had long been lured to the post of Director of the Botanical garden. Under his leadership, the garden became the best in Europe. There grew a variety of exotic plants and flowers and, of course, the favorites of Clusius - tulips.
Tulipomania and the crisis
Holland at that time because of Maritime trade with Asia and America was the richest country. Every day in ports arrived ships with silver and spices, and suddenly wealthy noblemen and merchants looking for extravagant ways to spend crazy money. Exotic garden in his Palace was one of those fashion ways.
Clusius literally infected Dutch your passion tulips. The country began madness, complete madness, later called by historians the "tulipmania". For 20 years the Dutch managed to grow dozens of varieties of tulips.
In 1625, onion rare varieties of Tulip already could cost 2000 gold guilders. Trafficking was organized on the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Haarlem and Leiden. Volume Tulip exchange reached an astronomic amount of 40 million guilders.
To 1635 the price raised to 5500 gold for a bulb, and by the beginning of the year 1637 rates tulips rose by 25 times. One onion was given as a dowry to the bride, three were worth as much as a good house, but only one onion varieties of Tulip Brasserie was given for a prosperous brewery. Sellers bulbs earned a lot of money. All talks and deals revolved around a single subject - bulbs.
For example, onion, red Tulip with white veins was worth 10 LLC guilders, and Rembrandt for his painting "Night watch" paid 1800 that his very pleased.
Many Dutch left work and constantly played on the stock exchange on sale of tulips. To buy bulbs and resell at a higher price, laid homes and businesses. Sale and resale made a lot of times, while the bulbs are not even removed from the earth. The state has doubled for the moment, the poor became rich-rich - rich. Started to build the first financial pyramid, which would have envied and Mavrodi. Appeared the Tulip mafia, kidnap bulbs.
And on Tuesday 3 February 1637, tulipomania in Holland over. And suddenly and for no apparent hitherto reasons. The auction began with the sale of bulbs inexpensive varieties of White crown for the price 1250 guilders per lot. Yesterday there were many people willing to buy this lot at a much higher price, but today buyers has not appeared at all.
Sellers understand that all bulbs to immediately sell it, but there was no one. Terrible news spread through the city, and after some time and across the country. Rates not only decreased
- the Tulip exchange at once ceased to exist. Rates bulbs fell on average a hundred times. Tens of thousands of people for a few hours went bankrupt and have become beggars. Across the country, a wave of suicide.
The disease shop
To understand the Dutch and their obsession with colors. After all, those tulips were insanely beautiful, more beautiful present. And, paradoxically, the main reason for the magnificence of the flowers was the fact that they were ill - affected by the virus floral mosaics. Because of him on the petals of the flowers appear white or yellow bars mixed with a touch of different shades of pink or red.
Motley colouring of petals are very decorative, and such tulips were valued more than solid. But the virus is the virus. Infected plants develop poorly form a smaller offspring and blossom later. Although not perish, but less viable - can grow only in greenhouse conditions. Breeders have to understand that we need a burst of fresh blood
- the wild, primeval powerful, natural. But where to get these "savages" in Turkey and Persia tulips too kulturalis and lost primeval force.
And in the middle of the XIX century there appeared articles and monographs of the Russian traveler Alexander Schrenk, explored the vast areas of Central Kazakhstan and Semirechye. He described that in the distant Kirghiz kisacka steppes and at the foot of the mountain, which is a huge amount of wild tulips. No one breeds, none of them is not to care, they grow by themselves and each spring literally cover the whole steppe red carpet.
In those days of Petersburg Botanical garden was headed by the Swiss Edward Regel. His son albert was sent to a district doctor in Ghulja. Having returned to Petersburg, he told daddy-botany of the unknown flora of Kazakhstan and Semirechye. Senior Regel started to beat out money from the Treasury on a scientific expedition. Like today, the then officials are the least paid attention to science, and especially on botany.
However, Regaly still managed to get the location of powerful individuals, and the expedition albert hit the road.
The results exceeded all expectations. Albert raised collections of flora, consisting of dried plants, bulbs, seeds, and sent narodnymi in Petersburg, where his father meticulously described and defined plants, among which there were many species previously unknown to science, including nine species of wild tulips. One of the species was named after the younger Reg-La - Tulip Alberta, the other in honour of the pioneer Alexander Schrenk, and most had to give the names of the benefactors-officials - Kolpakov-ski, Greig, Kaufman.
Thanks to the family of Regula types Kazakhstan tulips were in Holland, England, France, Germany and America, where he attracted the attention of breeders, and became the ancestors of the majority of modern varieties. 75% of all garden Dutch tulips are descendants of tulips of Greig's and Kaufman.
Tulips are saviors
During the Second world war, when the siege began the hunger, the Dutch had eating Tulip bulbs. These are tough and tasteless, low in calories, but nevertheless saved many civilians from starvation.
In General tulips to plant and grow in gardens, gardens, flower beds, greenhouses. And yet these beautiful and delicate flowers it is necessary to give women - wives, beloved friends, mothers, sisters, all women without exception. Because both are beautiful.
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