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Viewings: 492371 years ago the German troops without declaring war attacked the USSR, pastigov by surprise poorly trained and worse equipped with the Red army. At least, that illuminate the beginning of the great Patriotic war official sources. But some historians claim that Hitler did not attack the Soviet Union - he was forced to do it. Of course, this version causes many disputes and doubts. Still, let us consider, could it be actually.
A truce for 20 years
The second world war began, only 21 years after the end of the First, which ended in complete defeat of Germany. The Germans were forced to pay the countries-winners huge reparations. Moreover, signed in 1919 Versailles peace Treaty forbade them to have a land army of more than 100 thousand people, and a modern military equipment for combat aircraft and armored vehicles. Everyone understood that such conditions are in fact put Germany to its knees. For example, Lenin wrote: "What is the Treaty of Versailles? This is unheard of, predatory world that tens of millions of people, including the most developed, put in the position of slaves". French Marshal Ferdinand Foch, after reviewing the terms of the contract, the prophet said: "It's not the world, this truce for 20 years". The question arises, how are put in such a position, the country was able to prepare for a new war, and planetary scale? It turns out that helped the Soviet comrades.
German base in the Country of Soviets
Already in 1922 between the USSR and the Weimar Republic, formed in Germany instead of the defeated Second Reich, bypassing the Versailles was secretly signed another contract - Rafalski. One of his main points was the cooperation between the red army and the Reichswehr (armed forces of Germany).
Of course, paying reparations country could not afford much to afford. But in 1924 took effect of the so-called "Dawes plan": countries-winners of concessions and reduced the size of the reparations payments, as well as issued the Weimar Republic giant credit for industrial development. Also in 1925, the Germans signed a trade agreement with the USSR. Germany quickly began to rise from their knees and raised the funds not only for the economic recovery, but also to regain its former military power.
As already mentioned, Germany had no right to create a modern military equipment on its territory. But was able to do it secretly on someone else. Within Realschule agreement in July 1925 under the Lipetsk opened the Soviet-German aircraft and tactical school.
In October 1926 was signed in Moscow the agreement on creation under Kazan German tank school, called "Kama". Also on the territory of the Soviet Union placed two German polygon "Podosinki" in the suburbs and the object "Tomka" in the Saratov region. They were tested toxic substances.
In strict secrecy, the Germans brought in Lipetsk fighters Fokker D.XIII", transport planes and bombers. In Kazan transported disassembled light and medium tanks, secretly constructed by German machine-building firms. Thus, Germany has the opportunity to build military muscle to educate specialists and accumulate technique. The Soviet Union, in turn, got modern German military development.
German military schools existed in the Soviet Union until 1933, after which have been closed as of secrecy was no longer needed. In the 1930s, despite the ban, the Germans began openly to train troops and build aircraft on its own territory, and in great quantities. It should be noted that all this happened before the coming to power of the Nazis. So, quite possibly, even before Hitler hurt by the defeat in the First world war, the country was planning to take revenge.
Sponsors of war
This partnership between the USSR and Germany has not ended. When in 1934 came to power of Adolf Hitler, at first relations between States have cooled. In the Soviet Union was conducted anti-fascist propaganda in Germany, anti-Soviet. In 1935 was an attempt to restore trade, but that was sluggish in comparison with previous years.
Before world war II, Germany was particularly in need of food and resources. As is known, in August 1939, the Soviet Union and the Third Reich signed a Treaty on mutual non-aggression, the so-called Molotov - Ribbentrop Pact. But at the same time signed another document on trade cooperation. The USSR received from the Germans loan of 200 million Reichsmarks, agreeing to spend the money on the acquisition of German weapons, machine tools and other goods. To repay the loan the Soviet side had food and raw materials.
on August 31, 1939 the President of the Council of people's Commissars of the USSR Vyacheslav Molotov, in his speech said: "It was not the first commercial-loan agreement with Germany under the current government. But this agreement excels not only on agreement of 1935, but from all the previous ones, not to mention the fact that we had no one as beneficial economic agreements with Britain, France or any other country." And the next day began the Second world war. That is, the Soviet Union has become the sponsor of the Third Reich during the war: fed German army and set necessary for the production of weapons resources.
Of course, the USSR had with this their own benefits. From Germany to the Soviet Union were the most modern samples of German military equipment and armament: field and naval artillery, aircraft, tanks, torpedoes, mines, periscopes, telecommunications facilities, including equipment for their production. Also in the framework of this program the USSR was transferred to the heavy cruiser Lutzow", though unfinished. All German technology was studied carefully by Soviet specialists and were introduced into production for equipment of own troops. So in 1941 the Red army did not yield to the Wehrmacht in military power, but even somewhat exceeded it. Many modern historians agree that the myth of German superiority was created by the Soviet command to justify the huge losses at the beginning of the great Patriotic war.
Wilhelm Guderian, who in 1941 was in command of the 2nd tank group of the group of armies "Center".
The Fuhrer made?
Last trade agreement between the Soviet government and the Third Reich was signed in January 1941 and provided supplies to August 1942. The question arises: if Hitler had planned an attack on the USSR, for which he was to share most advanced military technology with a future enemy? Anyway, why attack ally that actually feeds your army?
Moreover, as was recognized, many officers of the Wehrmacht, Germany was not ready for war with such a powerful enemy. For example, General-field Marshal Carl Rundstedt, who commanded the army group South, asked the Fuhrer, whether he understands how risks, attacking the USSR. Rundstedt participated in the First world and considered Russia a strange country with severe climate, poor roads, vast spaces and unpredictable soldiers.
Perhaps the answer to his question lies in the treatment of Adolf Hitler to the German people, delivered on 22 June 1941 in connection with the war against the Soviet Union. Fuhrer argued that never had hostile feelings to the people of Russia, and to declare war on him, forcing the aggressive policy of the Soviet government. It turns out that he had reason to think so.
In the beginning of the Second world war in 1939, the French news Agency "Havas" announced the world sensational message: allegedly after signing a non-aggression Pact between the USSR and Third Reich Joseph Stalin gathered urgent meeting of the Politburo. Take just one line from the speech of "father of Nations" at this meeting: "If we will make known to you the German proposal on the conclusion with it of the non-aggression Pact, it will certainly attack on Poland, and then join Britain and France in this war will become inevitable. In such circumstances we will have good chances to stay away from the conflict, and we, being in a position to wait, when it will be our turn". As claimed by the French, the text of the speech Stalin came to them from a "reliable source". Of course, Stalin all categorically denied and accused "Havas" in a lie.
But some modern historians believe that no fakes, no, and here lies the reason for a sudden attack Germany. In their opinion, the Soviet government since 1920-ies plans to build the establishment of socialist throughout Europe. That is why the USSR in circumvention of the Treaty of Versailles helped Germany to restore military power, knowing that the Germans will want to revenge for the defeat and start a new war. And that is why Stalin went to an agreement with Hitler and supplied the Wehrmacht resources and food. He hoarded power to strike, to capture weakened by war European States. Called even the date of the planned Soviet attack on Germany - July 6. But Hitler had guessed the plans of Stalin and attacked before. on 22 June 1941 German troops first went on the offensive, pastigov by surprise preparing to attack the Red army.
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