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Viewings: 4500Many secrets stores the Gobi desert. According to legend, it contains the gates of the magical country Agartha, which is ruled by the king of the world. Rare daredevils who here has come back alive. This is why the path in the mysterious underground Kingdom covered the bones of the dead. At night to hunt out strange beasts of the desert - and opened the gates of Agarthi, showing forth the spirits of darkness and evil demons.
Instead of treasures - a huge snake
According to the old Mongolian legend, once in the Gobi desert, now almost deserted, was blooming oasis and the Kingdom of XI-Xia.
Many Chinese troops once besieged its capital, but the assault failed. Then they blocked the river, supplied the city with water, and took her aside. Residents were thirsty, and they dug a deep pit, but the water never reached. Having a presentiment of the inevitable death of their leader Hara-Jiang buried in a dry well entire Treasury and said over the place spell. And then killed his family and led soldiers in the last battle.
After the death of the defenders of the Chinese plundered it. Tried to find the treasure, but instead they dug up two huge snakes with red and green scales. Superstitious fear occupants fled, and destroyed the town was swallowed by the Sands of the desert. Would have stayed these events legend, if scientists did not find in Altai ancient manuscripts on the Tangut language.
Shrine with statues of idols
In 1720 the messenger of Peter I the major IM the Likharev laid on the Bank of the Irtysh river of Ust-Kamenogorsk fortress. About 70 kilometers from her guard patrol Cossacks found Ablainkit, fortified complex Buddhist monastery, protected from enemies by strong walls. For unknown reasons, the inhabitants of the left, but nothing broke and didn't carry.
Sanctuary of the temple was filled with statues of idols, a huge closet with drawers were kept numerous handwritten scrolls. On a black or a blue background of some of them was pushing a gold and silver unknown letters of the alphabet. Several of these manuscripts were taken to Peter I, who granted them the Paris Academy of Sciences. So for the first time scientists ' attention was attracted to the writings of Central Asia.
Not having understood the text, the French scientists, however, was the translation. In truth, it was Frank "the Linden", which found a Russian academician, first Moscow archivist Gerhard Miller. In July 1734 he personally visited the unique temple of Ablainkit and described its premises. And amazing drawings narrative songs, images, many-headed and many-handed male figures, naked female bodies... Admired and two miniature melting furnaces.
Maybe in the old days were made of gold, silver or bronze statues of Buddhist deities. Such were usually in the yurts of nomads in front of the entrance.
Part of the manuscripts, wooden table with carved letters and mysterious frescoes on the boards Miller took for a more thorough examination in Moscow. Later it became clear: the texts of manuscripts written in Tangut language. Immediately the question arose - what people these Tanguts?
...Their state emerged in the Tenth century in the Gobi desert, the climate in which in those days was much softer, than now. City of Khara-Khoto (the Tangut - Izing-AI), located in the valley of the river Actin goal in 1227 captured Genghis Khan, but not delivered his fire and plunder. Nearly two centuries later, in 1405, in this blooming oasis entered the Chinese army. Breaking the resistance of the inhabitants, it ruined the local irrigation system that was tantamount to the destruction of the city. And he was killed. Forgot about it for several centuries.
Ah, the road!
In December 1907 through the spurs of the Mongolian Altai, in the wilderness Alashan for sacred to many peoples of Asia lake
Had originated led the caravan General Pyotr Kozlov, a member of the famous expedition of Nikolai Przhevalsky. He knew about the Tangut manuscripts of Ablainkit, and the dead city of Khara-Khoto. A strong wind was carrying mixed with snow sand. Clothes are not saved participants in the campaign against the cold. Kozlov was expecting to get to the Gobi desert in the spring. And so it happened. In March, the caravan had already crossed the ridge of dunes, river bed dried up rivers, stopping briefly at rare wells. With the breeze blew almost unbearable heat. Dust gritted teeth, were stuffed in his mouth and ears. From her travellers were Persia throat, became inflamed eyes. The expedition was several times astray: desert did not want to reveal their secrets.
But now, finally, there traces of the ancient irrigation systems, became caught Buddhist stupa is the monumental religious buildings to house relics. Shortly above the sea sand loomed walls with protruding towers and domes of buildings. Horsemen rode into the lifeless city. Arranging the camp, they went for a visit to the fortress. In one of the walls was the gaping hole, through which you can easily reach the rider. Not about whether it mentioned a legend?
In early years at Khara-Khoto met a lot of caravan roads, here full of life. Excavations have confirmed this. Travelers pleased findings: painting on silk, fragments of ancient manuscripts and books, coins, fragments of statues of beautifully polished rock crystal. There were even tutu old, probably the first in the world of paper money with the hieroglyphs and red seals. All that he saw and numerous finds of General Kozlov sent a report to the capital. He hoped that in the Russian Geographic society he will be allowed to change the plan of the expedition. Definitely have to stay here, because excavations in the ancient city were very superficial. However, such permission was not followed, and the caravan went on.
Lake kukunor and the country Amdo
Twenty-five days went by researchers at the Alashan desert. The day was hot and the night is so cold that the makers were freezing water. Ridge Alashan is rampant steep rocks, which again reached loose Sands. The sun is heating up them up to 70 degrees, and feet burned, even through the soles of boots.
In August 1908, the caravan reached the lake had originated. Kozlov had gone away from the camp, I sat on the Bank. Here thirty-five years ago there was a camp of Nikolai Przhevalsky. As then was lapping waves of the lake, monotonous noise of the surf. A letter from St. Petersburg caught up with the expedition in the oasis Guide: "do Not spare neither effort nor time nor the funds to further excavations of Khara-Khoto". The head of the expedition was pleased, however, to return to the Gobi desert in winter it is not necessary, and
Kozlov headed to the North-East corner of the Tibetan plateau, the mysterious country of Amdo. There participants of the expedition had to repel armed attacks of local tribes and to sleep, not letting go of weapons. Many times in their lives hung in the balance, and travelers happy to leave this evil country to return to Khara-Khoto and there to continue excavations.
A real treasure opened in one of Surganov, away from the fortress on the Bank of the dried up river. It was a lot of books, manuscripts, almost three hundred picturesque images on canvas, silk and paper, skillfully woven tapestries, bronze and gilded statues of deities with expressive faces, coins, silver and gold jewelry, various utensils... the Dry desert climate has preserved all these priceless historical treasures. The work was interrupted only in the heat, about when the stones can be burned, and suddenly flown vortices raised clouds of dust.
The findings were so many that all of them to take with them was not possible. Part of the treasure Kozlov hid, hoping to pick up some other time. Having rest in the boxes, the caravan went to Russia.
...Again hit the Khara-Khoto Petr Kozlov has managed only in 1926, and once there, not found tucked last time things. Apparently, the spirits of the desert did not want to return them. But the collection, taken out in the first expedition, was so great that the study it has taken many years. Only books and manuscripts was almost two thousand! On the study of the meeting worked hard for years connoisseurs of ancient literature, Mongoloid, archaeologists and numismatists. Findings Kozlov allowed to make many important conclusions to decipher the mysterious texts. As it turned out, the Foundation of the ancient Mongolian legends about the forgotten all the Kingdom of XI-Xia were quite real facts of the history of Central Asia.
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