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Пирамиды ЕгиптаContrary to common belief, only the great Pyramid, not the three Great Pyramids, located in the "list" Wonders of the world. But the world famous and the rest of the pyramids of the pharaohs (Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinos). It is their Greek names, these same Egyptian respectively - Cheops, khafra and menkaura. The time of their construction refers to the beginning of the old Kingdom (2800-2250 years BC). Complex feelings cover the traveler at the sight of the Great pyramids. They seem giant crystals, grown from surrounding grayish-yellow sand, although initially they symbolized a dung beetle-skorobey. Clearly they appear on the background of the pale sky and lifeless, endless desert. And it seems that they have been here forever.

Place:

The city of Giza, a necropolis of ancient Memphis in Egypt.

History:

Great pyramid of Khufu (Cheops)

233 meters each side of the base, 147 meters high, built of 2 300 000 stone Bolkow, each of which weighs 2.5 tons. No one of the parties of the pyramid is not different from other along the length of more than 20 centimeters. The entire structure as a whole fully orientate the compass. Until the 19th century it was the highest structure in the world. And, at age 4500 years, this is the only one of the famous "Seven Wonders of the Ancient World" which has been preserved to our times.

The earliest mention of the pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) come from known Greek traveler Herodotus. About 450 BC he visited Egypt and included a description of the Great pyramid in his historical narrative. Purpose of the construction of the pyramid, according to Herodotus, was the construction of the tomb of Pharaoh Khufu, which the Greeks called Cheops. Herodotus wrote that he was talking with his Egyptian tour guide and he was informed that the construction of a pyramid has taken more than 20 years of continuous efforts to 100,000 slaves.

The construction of a pyramid has cost incredible works. No mechanization at that time did not yet exist. Tools for processing of stone were made of red copper and quickly went dull. Stone blocks and slabs, and it took millions and millions, made terrible by its complexity way. On a cliff along the contour of the future copper plate drills, under which continuously had to be sand and podevalis water, swirlies deep hole. In them drove wooden wedges, which poured water. Tree swollen and tore off a chunk of rock. The lump was cutting copper chisels and polished. And one can only wonder about the accuracy of treatment and polishing of stones, which reached the ancient, having such equipment. The stones of the pyramid so fitted that they cannot put even a knife blade.

There is no doubt that the pyramid acted just as the tomb of the Pharaoh. For many centuries before the construction of the Great pyramid, and for many centuries after, the Egyptians created constructions intended for the disposal of their kings, pharaohs. Together with them they buried the things they, in their opinion, would need after death, servants, and animals countless treasures.

For a long time the main problem was considered the theft of the pyramids. This problem seems to have existed in Ancient Egypt, since the Egyptian architects, creating a pyramid, designed secret room and rooms-baits, traps, secret door, trying to divert the attention of the alleged robbers from the present location of the tomb of the Pharaoh.

In 820 A.D. Arab Caliph Abdullah al Manum decided to find the treasures of Khufu. Unable to find the location of the alleged secret door in the tomb of Pharaoh, he ordered his workers to start to dig beneath the pyramid. After you have passed the hardest tens of meters, and the Caliph had already decided to stop work, they heard deaf echo SWAT inside the pyramid. Continuing to dig in the direction of the sound, they soon turned out in the passage that led down into the pyramid. On the floor lay a large stone block that fell from the ceiling, clear and former noise. In the beginning of the corridor, which they found was the secret door to the outside, they missed.

Paving the way down the corridor, they soon find themselves deep down in the natural stone rock below the pyramid. Corridor ceased to fall and went horizontally approximately 20 meters, then ended the wall.

When workers visited the fallen stone block, they noticed a large granite connector above it. After going through it, they found another passage, which, extending, walked right in the centre of the pyramid. Follow this corridor, they find several granite blocks, closing the tunnel. They begin to dig around them along the walls and finally be in the low horizontal passage that leads to a small square empty room. This room becomes then known as "the Queen room", although she hardly ever fulfilled this function.

Working drew attention to the open space in the ceiling at the intersection of two corridors. Having risen on him, they were in the so-called"Big Gallery", which led them to a small and low horizontal passage. According to him, they were in a large room, about 11 meters long, 5 wide and 6 tall. It was "the room of the King". In the center of the table a huge granite sarcophagus without cover. In the rest of the room was completely empty.

The Arabs, as if wanting to avenge the absence of treasures, tried to dismantle the Great pyramid and send it as a building material in Cairo, but after they snali top of pirondi about 10 meters of stone, they left this impossible task.

What happened to the treasure of the Pharaoh Khufu? Legends say that the pyramid, like many other Egyptian tombs of the nobles, was the victim of robbers long before before it entered Abdullah al Manum, Although, if to believe the evidence of his work, granite stones blocking the aisles, were still in place, when they went into the grave.

In 1638 English mathematician, John graves, who visited the pyramid, found the narrow passage, hidden in the wall, which was connected with a Large Gallery with a downward passage. Both the ends of it were tightly closed, and the floor is littered with the debris. Some archaeologists decided that this route was used the last of the people of Pharaoh, to exit from the tomb after the closing stone will be established place, and maybe in this passage robbers and took the treasure. But the small size of the passage and the presence of fragments of stone were in doubt that such a huge number of treasures, including the lid of the sarcophagus, and agreement to be stolen and made this way.

There have been suggestions that the pyramid never was used as tombs, and was astronomical Observatory. Roman author Proclus, at least, insists that before construction of the pyramid was used in this property. You can listen to these words, but we must remember that when Proclus expressed his opinion, the age pyramid is already accounted for more than 2000 years.

Astronomer Richard Proctor says that down the corridor could be used to monitor the movement of some of the stars, and the Grand Gallery, open at the top, was used for mapping the sky.

Many strange and sometimes ridiculous theories have emerged to explain the purpose of the pyramid and its corridors. Most archaeologists, however, adhere to the theory, according kotoroi Great pyramid was most of the big tomb, which was used for the burial of the pharaohs of Egypt.

What happened with the mummy of Khufu and his treasure? Nobody knows. Different studies have found no other rooms or passes. But perhaps ever will be mystery of the last shelter of Khufu and his treasures.

Pyramid Khafra

It almost almost equal the height of the pyramid of Khufu. Although the length of its Foundation - 215 meters and the height is 143 meters, pyramid khafra seems to be even higher because of greater steepness of slopes. Near the pyramid stands and is now a huge figure of the Great Sphinx. The colossal dimensions of the shape: its height is 20, and the length of 57 meters. Carved out of solid rock, the figure depicts a reclining lion with a human head. Enigmatic and mysterious looks Sphinx. "The father of awe" called the Sphinx nomadic Bedouins. Overcoming superstitious dread, they mutilated, destroyed the face of the Sphinx. And the Europeans were not better. In the Sphinx was firing of guns and cannons soldiers of Napoleon's army during the Egyptian expedition 1798-1801 years.

The Pyramid Of Menkaura

's volume is ten times less than the pyramid of Khufu. Its height is only 66,4 meters. Menkaur could not afford the construction of most of the pyramid. The country was devastated by the construction of the pyramid of Khufu and khafra. Famine began. The population exhausted by overwork, protested. But, despite the smaller pyramid of menkaure looks unusually beautiful.
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