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Стоунхендж: великая книга тайн... из камня The most famous and remarkable of the extant of cromlechs, i.e. prehistoric megalithic structures made of stone, is, without a doubt, Stonehenge in England. This prehistoric monument of architecture is combined in the form of a circular fence of the two types of hewn stone blocks that were delivered with Preselected mountains to the construction site for several centuries. And Peteliskiu mountains are more than 200 miles from Stonehenge.

And there is a legitimate question arises: how our prehistoric ancestors managed to drag the heavy glybini on such a huge distance and, actually, why? Answer there is a big set. Or rather not even answer, but rather assumptions.

According to the ancient Celtic legend, extraordinary structures created Merlin. It is he, the great magician, personally suffered a bulky stone blocks from Ireland and the extreme South of England in the town of Stonehenge, which is North of the town of Salisbury in Wiltshire, and built there a survivor of the century sanctuary is the most famous in the British Isles, and in the whole world, the megalith.

Stonehenge, recall, is a double circular fence installed vertically large stones. Such a fence archaeologists call cromlech. And it was built, in their opinion, between the third and second Millennium before Christ in five large time steps.

Stonehenge

In 1136 English chronicler Jeffrey Manatsky testified that "these stones were brought from afar". We, relying on the data of modern Geology, one can agree with it: some of the rock for the construction of the megalith really were somehow brought from the West, but not from nearby to Stonehenge quarries. In addition, 80 tons of menhirs, or processed stone blocks, which are then followed installed in a vertical position, brought from southern areas of Wales, located in the Western part of England (in particular of the Pembrokeshire). And this happened on the second construction phase, i.e. in the second half of the third Millennium. From Preselected quarry in the South-West Wales so-called blue stones were transported to Stonehenge on water - at least, suggests famous English archaeologist Professor Richard Atkinson. And more specifically on the sea and rivers into the country. And finally yields successful results, "gala", which, centuries later, in 1265, got the name, preserved to our days, however, somewhat different meaning: "Avenue" - which will be discussed later. And here is really fit to admire the strength and endurance of the ancients.

No less admired and skills of masons. Since a large portion of the roofing plates famous dolmen, also known as megalithic structures of the type of Stonehenge, weigh several tons, and many support - of the order of several tons. In addition, it was required to find suitable blocks, take them to the place of the future building and set in a specific order. In short, the construction of Stonehenge, in modern terms, amounted to the labour feat.

In fact, during the construction of Stonehenge was used stones in two varieties: strong boulders - the so-called Aeolian pillars of aberinkula Sandstone, of which put the trilithon - the same dolmens, or vertical blocks of stone with a cross stone slabs on top of that formed the outer circle of the entire structure; and softer dolerites, included in the composition of the ore and coal seams. Dolerite is similar to basalt rock bluish-gray tint. Hence its other name - blue stone. Two-meter height and dolerites form the inner circle of megalithic structures.

Although the blue stones of Stonehenge is not very high, it is in them, archaeologists believe, concluded the secret meaning of the entire structure.

The first thing unanimously agreed scientists, geological origin dolerites: their homeland - Peteliskiu mountains. But the reason why the ancient ancestors of the Celts had to roll dolerite rocks opinions of researchers are dispersed. Disputes mainly caused question: did people from the new stone age were dragged himself glybini to the construction site of the megalith or stones moved by themselves - as change of the glaciers during the Quaternary period, that is, long before the appearance of man? The debate was put only recently. At the international conference glaciologists announced the results of many years of his research, which boiled down to the fact that in the Stonehenge area is large glacial movements have never been.

Now the archaeologists were able to carry out excavations in full confidence that the move megalithic blocks - a consequence of the enormous human activity. But the answers to many other questions connected with the "how" and "why", not found yet.

From Preselected mountains to Stonehenge on a straight - 220 km However, as we know, the straight path is not always the shortest. And in our case: given the exorbitant of gravity of the cargo had to choose not the shortest and most convenient way.

It would also be necessary to build appropriate vehicle. It is known that in the new stone age people were able to hollow out from tree trunks Chelny, - these were the main means of transport. Indeed, recently, archaeologists discovered the remains of an ancient trimaran, which consisted of three seven-meter length dugout canoes, sealed with the crossbars. This trimaran could be controlled using the poles six people. And as chetyrehspalnyh stone blocks, the same six rowers had the power to put them on a trimaran using levers. The sea route along the sloping banks of Wales was the most convenient and secluded coves, in case of bad weather, there were plenty.
Price Titanic efforts

However, part of the way had to be overcome by land. And then it took hundreds of pairs of hands. First cargo had to be pumped into the carrier and pull them free from the boughs of trees, laid across the way, like rinks. Each glubinu dragged least two dozen people.

And one more important detail: in order to avoid the fall and spring storms stones can be transported in early may to late August. This required not only a huge workforce, but also nous, because the only tools in those days were wooden poles, stone axes and levers, not counting the wooden rollers and Chelny. Great help, also served belts - leather, flax or hemp. Wheel at that time not yet invented. Horse people are also not yet learned to domesticate. And therefore, was not and wagons - they have appeared much later, in the bronze age. Meanwhile, as draft animals, the people of the new stone age already widely used bulls. Yes, and they were United in a well-organized community.

People are going to get the stone, of course, was guided by some great motivation: the miners knew - if you will not return empty-handed, they are waiting for honor and glory, because they contribute their mite in the construction of the sanctuary, in other words, fulfill a sacred mission. For young men, for example, such a campaign was kind of a test prior to the initiation of men.

It is easy to guess that the path of miners was long and difficult. And it is no coincidence that some of them died on the way. Especially many dangers concealed waterway is mainly due to storms, colliding winds and currents. Moreover Chelny advanced very slowly because they managed, as we remember, with poles or a primitive rowers. Ground path is also required Herculean efforts, as to move the huge blocks of stone on land where more difficultly, than water.
Stonehenge - the sanctuary of the Sun?

Autumn blue stones finally brought down the river to the place, located three kilometers from Stonehenge, and the miners returned home. And the cargo remained on the shore until next summer: the stones were set invariably at the summer solstice. Then, in fact, ended a long "the sacred path".

On the day of the ceremony, before sunrise, ended the last stage: to Stonehenge in a special way - "Avenue" - proceeded solemn procession. The road this, fourteen feet wide, on both sides outlined the ditches and embankments. She stretched upward arc, facilitating rise on a sacred hill, and kept strictly to the East where the sun rises.

Some stones at Stonehenge form straight rows, aimed at the side of sunrise and sunset and the moon. Probably, to the ancient it was vital: they were exactly the days when followed to worship the spirits of deceased ancestors.
Where did the blue stones?

As we already know, brought to Stonehenge dolerites were used in the construction of the first fence was erected around 2500 BC. By the time Stonehenge was considered the oldest monument. Five centuries before the sanctuary was surrounded by a moat, distancing it from the external side earthen wall width of the order of hundreds of meters.

During the third stage of construction is about 2000 BC - the Stonehenge were installed great trilithon. At the same time on the construction site took onnie Eolian pillars them to the sanctuary had to drag thirty kilometers.

The most grandiose construction phase began with the delivery of the blue menhirs. By the time dolerite belt and not finished, was the ruinYong - probably in order to give way to a more majestic building, the construction of which required much more effort.

So, for some four hundred years blue stones have disappeared at all. However, around 2000 BC they were in the same place. And today is on them that we can judge about what was Stonehenge in its original form.

However, not all archaeologists believe that the dolerites as a building material disappeared for four hundred years. Their traces were found in other monumental buildings of that time: for example on the mountain Silbury, the high artificial hill times new stone age, towering 40 km North of Stonehenge. On top of it and was discovered chip dolerite, which, apparently, was once part of the cromlech.

While we do not have full knowledge of that distant era, we, nevertheless, there is every reason to assume that stone circles represent, among other things, the monuments of culture of the new stone age, when man began to productive activity. At that time people had the first experience in agriculture and animal husbandry. At the same time, people became accustomed to the settled way of life and build settlements.

So whatever the true reasons of stone age people to build Stonehenge the cromlech, in our view, it would be most wonderful megalithic monument.
P.S. Found the burial of the "King of Stonehenge"

Recently, the British archaeologists have found an ancient burial near this mysterious constructions. According to the newspaper "The Guardian", human remains buried near Stonehenge more than four thousand years ago, belongs to come from those places, where now is situated Switzerland.

Person from the burial was nicknamed "King of Stonehenge", because the tomb was generously filled with expensive items. Here there were a lot of metal products, including tools, as well as decorations made of gold extracted from the oldest field of Britain.

Burial was immediately struck by archaeologists, absolutely smashing them up. But maybe they will give the key to the resolution of long-standing mystery that has spawned countless number of hypotheses, as boulders Stonehenge, each weighing up to four tons, were transported to a distance of 240 miles from Preselected mountains at their current place?

The burial of the "King of Stonehenge" was found three miles from giant stone "circle". "King" was buried around 2300 BC, just at a time when huge boulders were added to pre-existing specially dug the ditch and the construction of earthfill. And it is the turn of the III-II millennia BC is the beginning of a new era in primitive human history - the bronze age, during which in ancient cultures was a huge number of progressive change. It was considered that, in General, metal processing has spread much later - in the II Millennium BC, that is why it is of great significance of this finding, related to the last third of the III Millennium BC

Andrew Fitzpatrick, Director of the Archaeological society of Wessex, said:

- I would like to know whether there was really a "king" the stranger that is conveyed in the direct sense, the main continental technologies prehistoric Wiltshire, the same man who knew how to smelt copper ore and to do of her knives. He had the highest status in the community, and it certainly was connected with his ability to handle the metal. For people of that era person who could collect the stones" and "transform" them into metal objects, was something like an alchemist or mage in the middle Ages. I think it may not be our imagination.

Home "king" helped set his teeth. The study of tooth enamel has shown that the early stages of his life passed in area of Alps, perhaps Swiss. He died at the age from 35 to 45 years.

Not far from the burial of the "King of Stonehenge found another burial, which was also the skeleton. Research of the second skeleton showed that he belonged to a man who was born and raised in England, but is a relative of the "Swiss guest, possibly his son.

In the tombs of the "king" and his "son" was found more than a hundred different subjects. The number is ten times exceeds finds in other burial sites belonging to the same time period. Among the finds three copper knife, two gold buckles for hair, sixteen arrowheads, stone bracelets, flint and tools made of antlers, and bone pin that might have been the clasp to service.

For this type of burial is characterized by the presence in the burial grounds ' Cup. Normally, if there is one, maximum two cups or bowls. But in this burial ground was found five! Archaeologists trying to explain such a large number of cups, made a bold assumption: "the king" was not only a "magician" and "the alchemist", he was also the first itinerant trader!

Now research the local cemetery continue.
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