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Европа-2050: как подготовиться к изменению климатаEurope is running a race with the climate. To reach global agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions little hope, and by 2100, the temperature would likely increase by 3 or 4 C compared to pre-industrial levels. We must have time to prepare.

In the new report of the European environment Agency explains how the climate has changed and what will happen next. For the first time we have a fairly clear idea about it.

Most adverse effects of climate change in different regions of Europe.

So, temperature extremes will become more frequent throughout Europe. In the South of the continent heat will be particularly strong, because there are so hot, also this part heats up faster than the European average (about the same speed as the Arctic). The heat is particularly difficult to carry the elderly, and the European population is ageing rapidly, so that the output of the victims is easy to do.

Many Mediterranean city is ready to heat: they narrow, shady streets and not too much heat radiating concrete. But in the North the situation is worse. In 2003 from the unprecedented heat wave killed 35 thousand people, most of them French, and among the French - Parisians. The cities of the Northern part of Europe should review the architecture and layout, to plant more greenery, as well as to eliminate possible from concrete and asphalt. By the way, these measures will help to cope with floods, because in the presence of a large number of open-soil water easier to leave.

By the way, about floods. They happen more often. The countries of Northern and Western Europe will have to face new Atlantic storms and steep rise in sea level. Since the North sea is Mediterranean, there will be stronger than in the South. Coastal lowlands will gradually disappear. Higher coast will wash away. Storm surges in any case will be higher and farther.

The main part of the territory of the Netherlands lies below sea level and more than one century is struggling not to go under water. Some hazardous areas, the authorities are evacuating the population, encouraging waterlogging. In other places are constructed houses. In the future, this experience will be useful. Of course, the whole coastline is not to save (it is too long), but Copenhagen, London and other important ports must think about strengthening of embankments.

Will be its advantages. Mountain areas (the Alps, Scandinavia) rely mainly on hydropower, and by 2050 the flow of water will spin turbines all year round. In addition, Northern Europe will be able to produce more biofuels by extending the length of the vegetation period. Hurrah!

And immediately - alas! Many nuclear power plants are built on the coast to facilitate access to water, cooling the reactors. Last year the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan has proved the consequences. So you have to protect the station from high waves and use a backup cooling methods.

With energy the report switched to agriculture. Remember: in the South, water shortages, in the North - storms and floods, everywhere heat. The Mediterranean will have to abandon many cultures. Farmers will switch to drought-resistant plants such as sorghum and millet. The most serious challenges faced by poor countries in South-East Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey. But when properly and timely irrigation, these could be the new barn Old world.

The European economy is still reeling from the financial crisis of 2008. Climate change will, without a doubt, more terrifying ordeal. Rich countries can afford to purchase food and other essential goods abroad, as well as investments in new technologies and protection from rising sea levels, and the poor will become poorer. This imbalance is evident already now: only 14 EU countries have developed adaptation plans, and they all belong to Northern and Western Europe. Thus at risk are not only poor men like Bulgaria, but also small countries like Switzerland, the prosperity of which can undermine one serious accident. To create a Fund to combat the effects of climate change now.

Mediterranean countries, it would seem, are not so poor, but their economy depends primarily on agriculture and tourists. A third of the world tourism accounts for the Mediterranean sea. These States must find a new way to earn a living.

Prepared according to NewScientist.
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