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ПЯТЬ ТИТУЛОВ ФАРАОНАSince the eleventh dynasty Middle Kingdom, Pharaoh at the coronation chose five titles, or throne names. These throne names (Titus-Latour Pharaoh) were not accidental, but meant intentions of Pharaoh, future acts of the Governor - what he wanted to accomplish during his reign. In addition, the list throne names contained a reference to God, who was to do this, Pharaoh especially revered and important.

The first was called "the name of the Mountain", and thus emphasized the role of the Pharaoh as an incarnation of the God Horus. Second name - the name Nabti", or "the name of both of Queens", - emphasized that Pharaoh is the master of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Nehbet goddess, which was depicted on the coat of arms in the form of a kite, was considered to be the patroness of Upper Egypt, and Widget - presented in the form of Cobra - was the patroness of the Lower Egypt. The third name - "gold the name of the Mountain". Its meaning is uncertain. Fourth - throne name of the Governor of Upper and Lower Egypt, which stressed the unity of the two parts of the country. The fifth name is a personal name of the Pharaoh, given to him at birth, equipped with the necessary indication of its divine origin of the son of RA. In science pharaohs often called by the first, fourth and fifth name. All names was designated the appropriate characters, and was a long row. An enumeration of all the names of Pharaoh difficult to remember. Personal name of the Pharaoh, given to him at birth, was known only to a narrow circle and relatives. After the coronation, when Pharaoh had received all their names, it was not called by name. In relief and picturesque images Pharaoh's name was placed inside a cartouche - oval-frame by which scientists determine right away that we are talking about the name.

Cartouches were quite large to accommodate the numerous characters. For example, five throne name of Pharaoh Tutankhamun looked like this:

First name Mount - Ka-nacht tut-mesut. "Mighty bull, perfect in his incarnation".

Second name NELTI - Nefer-hepru segereh-toui sehetep-netjeru nebu. "The driving force of the Law, soothing both countries, pleasing all the gods".

Gold name Mount - Wetjes-chau sehetep-netjeru. "Giving signs, reconciling the gods".

Throne name - Nesu-bity: Nebcheprure. "King of Upper and Lower Egypt, the Manifestation of God RA.

Personal name - So-Re: Tutonchomun (heqo-iunu-schemo). "Son of RA, the Living image of Amun, the Governor of Upper Egypt and Heliopolis".

The fourth and fifth names placed in the cartouches. The first pharaohs of a dynasty began to surround their names Mountain in the frame, the so-called Sarah - simplified picture of the fortress with the image of a Falcon, the symbol of the Mountain. Only the IV dynasty Pharaoh Sneferu (about 2639 - 2604 years BC) ordered to sign his own name in the cartouche. The Pharaoh Neferirkare of V dynasty, ruled about 2483 - 2463 years BC, used a frame for the throne name.

In the language of ancient Egyptian cartouche was called the Shen from the verb "neck-no"meaning "to surround". Perhaps when the style cartouche a sample was taken "ring Shen" - an ancient Egyptian symbol of Eternity. In the religious worldview of the ancient Egyptians name was extremely important for the life after death. Cartouches with hateful names of pharaohs shear with stone slabs decorated tombs, temples and tombs. People were forbidden to pronounce their names.

Priest-historian Manetho calls the first Pharaoh king Menes. According to ancient writings, he was the king of Upper Egypt, and was called Narmer or AXA. This ruler combined Upper and Lower kingdoms into one state under his rule and first put on white-red double crown. After it was ruled by several kings First Dynasty - the successors of the Choir (Falcon God).

The mention of king Menes as the founder of the Egyptian kings echoed in the writings of Greek and Roman historians, but it is possible that this figure legendary - generalized image of the Tsar-founder and chief-commander. It is believed that Menes (Aha) was born in Upper Egypt, in the city of tin. According to Herodotus, king Menes has conducted major excavation work in order to build a fortress which later became the city of Memphis is the residence of the Pharaoh and the capital of the Egyptian state. He built to the South of the fortress the local temple of Ptah and for the first time has made symbolical ceremonies of connection of the papyrus (a symbol of the North) and a Lotus (a symbol of the South). King Menes has crowned himself dual-red-white crown symbolizing the eternal unity of Upper and Lower Egypt. In a solemn procession he walked around the sanctuary and the fortress. The ceremony of coronation became traditional, and it was repeated during the ascent to the throne of all the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt.

In the text that has been carved on a stone stele in the temple of the God Amon in Thebes, says "cursed Menes"in which the Egyptian people were doing evil, when he was surrounded by luxury and luxury. From other labels follows that the king Menes has set new cults and the order of the temple rituals.

Diodorus told a legend about how the king Menes was hunting in Fayoum, and he was assaulted by his own dog. Resourceful Menes jumped on shore of the lake, and there were swimming Nile crocodile, who put him on his back and carried him to the other side. In memory of his miraculous rescue the king Menes has built on this place the city and the lake was dedicated to the crocodile. The Diodorus also written that the king had built his pyramid (although pyramid invented vizier Imhotep, four centuries later), and that this wise king taught the people to pray to the gods and to live in a human way. This statement is perhaps a vague echo activity energetic ruler in the country in which long time was in full swing conflicts and bloody wars.

According to the quotation from Manetho, given Africanus, the great king Menes died at the 63rd year of his reign, from wounds received while hunting on hippos. Hunting hippos was a favorite pastime of ancient Egyptian kings, so this tragic episode seems plausible, though, most likely, is as much a legend as crossing lake with friendly crocodile. Although Menes is considered to be the first king of United Ancient Egypt, it is still the figure of the more legendary than historical. Hardly historians will ever be able to get more reliable information about this mysterious personality.

Djoser Gorgeous (Neceriet, Tomorros of Manetho), which rules about 2635 - 2611 years BC, the second Pharaoh of the third dynasty and the old Kingdom. The inscription on a stone slab near Aswan tell about the seven-year drought in the reign of king Djoser and of the terrible famine that hit the country. Wise Djoser gave to the priests of the goddess ISIS island of Philae, and the priests of the God of Gnome - Elephantine island. Omnipotent gods took pity upon the Egyptians, and ended the drought.

Djoser approved its power in the Sinai Peninsula, where they extracted the turquoise and copper ore. The new border of Egypt he set on the first threshold of the Nile. His military campaigns gave Egypt many slaves that were useful for the construction of monumental buildings, the first step pyramid, which glorified the Djoser in centuries much more than his military victories and territorial acquisitions.

The famous step pyramid of Djoser and the complex of religious buildings built a great Builder, a talented architect and an outstanding scientist Imhotep, who was when Djoser vizier (parts) and the high priest of the God RA. It is assumed that Imhotep himself invented a pyramidal shape of the building. It was built above the rectangular stone mastaba of Pharaoh three mastaba of smaller size, and was four-stepped pyramid, which was later extended to six steps, so pyramid reached a height of 61 M. it is Possible that the first mastaba started to Pharaoh Sanah-TA, but the pyramid of Djoser considered to be the first stone building of the Ancient Egypt.

The pyramid of Djoser was built as a family tombs for the whole family. Later in the pyramids, the pharaohs were buried only, not their relatives. In the pyramid of Djoser was a place for all his wives and children. The spacious building was 11 burial chambers. The pyramid has been preserved to our days, only became lower by several meters.

The tomb of Pharaoh himself was not in one of the burial chambers inside the pyramid, and was carved into the rock beneath the base of the pyramid. With this purpose in the rock struck square mine area of about 7 m and depth in 27,45 m At the bottom of the Shrine was built of granite plates is brought from Upper Egypt. In the roof of the tomb has provided an opening for the laying of the mummy. After the burial, the roof was closed granite slab, weighing 3.5 tons entrance to the mine was located far outside of the pyramid, in the narrow tunnel to the North of it. The tunnel led deep down under the pyramid and fall in the mine. This underpass and the mine to the granite roof covered with rubble. From Grand Central well leave all sides underground corridors. The walls of some of them were covered with blue tiles, imitating reed mats, - they reminded light walls in the Palace of Pharaoh. The total length of underground passages were not less than one kilometer. All carved in the rock tunnels with their unexpected twists and stubs led eventually to the many hiding places, where there were thousands of stone vases and jars, carved alabaster and of porphyry, very hard, difficult in stone processing. Some of the vessels are signed by the name of king Djoser and its predecessors.

Around the stupaNatai pyramids were grouped ensemble of stone buildings. Earlier around the tomb of the Pharaoh were building the wall, inside of which the sacrifices were made, In the layout of the whole memorial complex Imhotep showed the real innovation and scope: he built a stone wall with a height of 10 metres and a length of 1650 meters In the wall was 15 gate, and only one gate were true, all the rest are false. Inside the fortress Imhotep stone building, lined with carved limestone slabs. Such furnish of external walls of buildings in Egypt nowhere else. Some of the reliefs on the walls may have been associated with the festival Sed - ritual is so ancient that its content has long been forgotten. On the wall of one of the tunnels in the rock under the fence of the pyramids preserved stone relief representing the running of Pharaoh Djoser in double crown. Run fast, presumably, was part of a ceremony, that is, the Pharaoh showed his strength and stamina needed to rule the country.

In addition to the pyramid in Saqqara, in Beth-Gallate, in the southern part of the necropolis in Abydos, by order of Djoser built enormous symbolic tomb. Length brick mastaba was 100 meters, and height - 10 m Long staircase led to the underground room, separated by partitions on 18 rooms, one of which was a burial chamber.

How old rules Djoser, it is precisely not known, all the dates of the Board of alleged, in any case, it was the Golden age of Ancient Egypt. When the Pharaoh Djoser began the construction of the famous Egyptian pyramids, made the first Egyptian solar calendar.

Amenemhat III of Nimaatra (in Greek sources - Lajares) was the son of the Pharaoh of Sinusita III. During his reign the power of Pharaoh was stronger than any other Pharaoh in the Middle Kingdom. Scientists noticed that when Amenemhet III built a luxurious tombs nomarch. So, he managed to create support among the new elite, nominated from officials and military personnel and significantly limit the power of the nomarch. Military campaigns when Amenemhat III was relatively small, because the borders of Egypt were installed and securely fastened in its predecessors. But in the inscriptions relating to his rule, nevertheless there are indications "defeat of Nubia" and "open Asia".

The Board of amenemhat III is marked by intense creative activity. He improved the device Egyptian settlements in Sinai, took care of the water supply and provided Sinai permanent protection. These measures were fruitful: increased extraction of ore at the copper mines, and development of deposits of turquoise began to give greater benefits.

Despite years of rule by the Amenemhet III, it left very little labels. But in all records of the reviews about this Pharaoh is favorable.

When Amenemhat III was completed large irrigation works in Filmscom oasis, which began long before his reign. Amenemhat III erected a huge mound (length of 43.5 miles)to drain a large part Faustovo oasis and make it suitable for farming. The works of Greek authors know that the Egyptians built the locks and dams, in which the excess water from the flooding of the Nile was taken to Fauske reservoir (the Greeks - Meridova lake). Modern calculations show that in this way it was possible to store enough water during the low water level in the Nile in continuation 100 days to double the flow in the river downstream of the river from Fauna.

On drained land Faustovo oasis were built city Krokodilopolis (or Arsinoe) and Shrine dedicated to the local God Sobek the crocodile (Sebek). On the Northern border of the drained part of the oasis set two massive pedestal in the form of truncated pyramids, with a height of more than 6 m On pedestals towered a huge (11,7 m) statue of amenemhat III, carved from yellow quartzite. During the flooding of the Nile pedestals sometimes almost completely disappeared under water, and the statues were straight out of the water - steadfast, massive and majestic.

There existed in Fayum Amenemhat III created an interesting stone structure, arousing admiration among the Greeks. It is a vast building with lots of corridors and halls Greeks called the Labyrinth. The maze was really impressive dimensions: length - 305 m, a width of 244 m He had 3000 areas, including 1500 underground rooms. Greek geographer Strabon wrote that the ceiling of each room consisted of solid stone, and all the corridors were covered with polished stone slabs unusually large size, with no tree or other materials in the construction could not be used - only the stone. The building, which made a lasting impression on the Greek travelers, perhaps, was built as a mortuary temple Amenemhet III.

It can be assumed that the Labyrinth had a different purpose, and in each hall had to stand numerous statues of the gods - General of the Egyptian and local domowych. Common to all sanctuary could serve as a spiritual unification of the people of all Egypt under the authority of the ruling dynasty. From the temple-Labyrinth preserved only fragments of reliefs decorating the walls of the building, and a few pieces of broken columns.

Amenemhat III was built for two pyramids. It happens very rarely: after the reign of Sneferu in the era of the Ancient Kingdom none of the Egyptian pharaohs are not built two pyramids. One pyramid of amenemhat III was built in Dahshur of Adobe bricks. Granite was used only for strengthening floors cameras and for pyramidion - pyramidal stone crowning the top of the pyramid. In this pyramid of Pharaoh commanded to do two entrances. One of them was by tradition, on the North side of the pyramid and conducted in a maze of corridors, ended in deadlock. The second entrance has been arranged in the South-East corner and also conducted in a long maze, but through the corridors of this maze you can get down to the burial chamber with red sarcophagus. Amenemhet III in this pyramid is not buried. Near it the discovery of the tomb of another Pharaoh, probably from the following XIII dynasty. Why did Pharaoh have not used completely ready, especially for him built the pyramid, remained a mystery.

The second pyramid of amenemhat III was built in the Post. This pyramid stood in the center of the newly established Royal necropolis, a part of which, perhaps, was the famous Maze. Now all that remains are the flat clay cone with the diameter of 100 meters and a height of 20 M. the Entrance to the burial chamber was located on the South side of the pyramid. The camera itself is great and is a beautiful example of ancient Egyptian architectural traditions. Spacious burial chamber carved from a single block of solid yellow quartzite and weighs more than 100 tons wall Thickness is 60 see the Cover of quartzite has a thickness of 1.2 m and weighs about 45 so on Top of the camera blocked gable roof of two limestone blocks weighing 50 tons each. In the chamber are two of the sarcophagus. Judging by the inscriptions, one was buried himself Amenemhat III, in the other his daughter Prejnemu. For my daughter meant a small pyramid next to the main. Amenemhat III rules about 45 years and, like his father, left behind a series of remarkable sculptural portraits of the beautiful work.
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