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Viewings: 5017In recent years, journalists and ordinary people talk on the theme of the Apocalypse, which is to come on the Mayan calendar, and that's what killed themselves Maya, I do not know yet even scientists. About the causes of decline of this civilization has not yet developed a unified theory, although hypotheses put forward more than enough. Most often in decline and death Mayan cities blame the drought.
Recent research seems to be confirmed this point of view, and scientists more paint the devil blacker than he is, according to their data, not one, but two consecutive drought destroyed the civilization of the ancient Maya.
Since the time of John Lloyd Stephens (John Lloyd Stephens) - discoverer of antiquities of the Maya in the 1840-ies - the researchers tried to find the cause of the disaster that befell the highly developed civilization of the people of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. Due to lack of historical data, often very contradictory nature, which date back to the late classic (from 1st to 10th century) and the beginning of the post-classical (10-16 century) periods, therefore by the time of the crisis of the Maya civilization, in the scientific world has established a whole kaleidoscope of opinions on this.
At the end of the first Millennium Maya stopped to do a major construction in cities and no longer built steles with calendar dates. The question arises: how this crisis was the sudden? In some cases platform, established as a Foundation for some of the buildings were empty. In particular, in Uaxactun was unfinished walls very late temple. All this suggests that the Maya had experienced at the end of the first Millennium some disaster that destroyed their classical civilization in southern Mexico and Northern Guatemala.
Will coelum be noted that for a long time, this crisis is not connected with the local climatic changes. Long been known that the Maya had a perfectly working system of irrigation canals, dams, reservoirs and filters, so they could survive during a drought. However, successive dry periods destroyed this culture, reports the journal Science. To cope with such a protracted disaster could not even all the waterworks.
American Professor Douglas Kennett (Douglas Kennett) together with colleagues from great Britain, Germany and Switzerland investigated in the cave yok Balum (Yok Balum) in southern Belize stalagmites, whose age is more than two thousand years. The fact that these mineral formations slow in arid climates and grow faster in the wet.
To restore the picture of precipitation in lowland forest zone of the country Maya managed by measurement of oxygen isotopes trapped in the composition of the stalagmite from rainwater that has leaked into the cave. Map of precipitation has imposed on the state of culture, which are fixed in a particular period in numerous documentary sources. After analyzing the characters, the experts were able to make the Dating of the conflicts taking place.
Especially significant assistance was provided by steles with calendar dates sequence rulers. Natural phenomena Maya was associated with divine grace, and in the case of prolonged drought or other cataclysm could decide that the Governor something has angered the gods. For example, for 25 dry years, between 750 775 for years, were killed 39 rulers.
In the opinion of paleoclimatologist Kennett, torrential rains contributed to the prosperity of the Mayan people. This period lasted from the 660 330 years. Thus, the study confirms earlier known facts. "Tikal, " writes the Russian scientist Valery Gulyaev, two of the last stage in the development of local culture was called IMIS and ESAB. The first one lasted from 700 to 830 years and the second - from 830 to 900 years. During stage IMIS the highest flowering of the city. The maximum size reached and the population. Excavations have shown, that at this time functioned up to 90 percent of all known in the city dwellings.
Stage ESAB immediately follows IMIS. But in striking contrast between them! At the beginning of Asaba stopped all the construction and sharply reduced the local population. Out of hundreds of dwellings, uncovered by excavations, no one had ceramic ESAB. She only discovered inside the palatial buildings. But people lived there as kings in the abundance and luxury, and under the threat of falling dilapidated roof and plaster. It was just miserable descendants still Maya".
Barely conditions became more favourable, people tried to restore the former glory, but about 1020-1100 years of drought reached its apogee. It is possible that the Mayan not perish, but have left the city and moved in the surrounding agricultural settlements.
Some part of the scientific community is of the opinion that periods of drought have claimed that the high culture of Mesoamerica. It was also suggested that the Mayans themselves which caused climate change. The catastrophe has greatly advanced the conversion of woodland. This, in particular, said speakers at a meeting of the American geophysical Union (AGU), held last autumn.
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