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Выдающиеся находки уходящего годаAnnually journal of Archaeology summarizes the results of the year in the field of archeology, while drawing up the rating of outstanding discoveries that shed light on the early history of mankind. What was interesting this year? In fact, archaeologists worked hard, and in all continents. Scientists waited many surprises from different historical eras.

It is worth noting that, in accordance with the English expression last but not least discoveries in archaeology are not listed in order of importance and not in chronological order. So, here is this kind of top 10:

1. Masks of the sun God Maya

Over the Mayan city of El Sots (El Zotz) in the jungles of Guatemala discovered a 13-metre "pyramid of the devil" El Diablo), exterior walls of which are decorated richly colored stucco masks. Mask depicted the gods probably celebrating different times of day. Among the gods were placed images of Venus and other planets. Legendary Night Sun temple was built around 1600 years ago. On top of it there is a tomb, probably belonged to one of the first rulers of the city, who lived from 350 to 400 A.D.. In the Mayan culture, the sun is closely connected with the notion of a beginning, hence the hypothesis that human remains, buried in the tomb near the temple, belong to the first Governor of El-SOC.

2. Home first aid kit Neanderthals

Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) were not only cannibals and meat-eaters, but also experts of medicinal plants. It showed the analysis of plaque (stone) of the remains of five individuals, who lived 50,6-47,3 thousand years ago and found in a cave El Sidron (El Sidr?n) in Asturias, in the North West of Spain. Neanderthals have found traces of wood smoke, starch, chamomile and yarrow. As previously, scientists have proven the existence of Neanderthals the gene responsible for the recognition bitter taste, the conclusion was made about the use of their bitter plants with low nutritional value in exclusively for medical purposes.

3. The first poison in the history of mankind

In the South African cave Border Cave found a wooden stick with notches with traces artificially made of poison. Artifact, age 24 thousand years, was discovered in the 1970's, but only held this year chemical analysis revealed that the poison made from seeds of the castor. The stick can use to apply the poison on arrowheads how this is dealt with in South Africa today hunters-Bushmen. Poison necessary because bone arrowheads are not able to kill the animal. From other finds interesting stick-digger, beads from the shell of ostrich eggs, carved boar's fangs, bone arrowheads and a piece of wax. The culture of the Bushmen is the oldest and has about 44 thousand years.

4. Ritual burial of the Aztecs

"The great temple" (Templo Mayor) - the complex of religious buildings in the capital of the Aztec state tenochtitl?n (present-day Mexico city) - served as a centre of public life of Mesoamerica before the Spanish conquest. After the discovery of more than a thousand tightly Packed human bones, among which 45 skulls and 250 jaws made clear his other role. Among the remains, there is only one full skeleton. It lying supine skeleton of a woman, his left hand clasped behind his back, and right resting on his stomach. Scattered about many other bones, including ten skulls, as well as offerings in the form of pottery and charcoal made, apparently, after the construction of the temple in 1479. Under the slab, which offered human sacrifices, discovered five skulls with holes in them. They did in order to place the skull on tzompantli - rack for public issuance of skulls.

5. Gallic Outpost of Julius Caesar

At the mountain hunsr?ck (Hunsr?ck) on the territory of the Federal States of Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland in the West German archaeologists recently discovered the earliest of known sites of Roman legionaries. Roman Outpost was built at the end of the Gallic war, waged by Julius Caesar. A military camp with a protective rampart, spread over 26 acres and contained, historians estimate that between 5 to 10 thousand soldiers. Outpost near the town of Hermeskeil (Hermeskeil, land Rheinland-Pfalz) is the earliest evidence of stay Roman garrisons on the territory of modern Germany.

6. The oldest graffiti old Europe

In a small cave Abri-Castang (Abri Castanet), located in the valley of the Weser in the South of France, found the most ancient erotic drawings about 35-37 thousand years ago by the hand of the hunter Paleolithic times. Ancient images were discovered, perhaps picturesque ancient pictures, done in the Chauvet cave (Chauvet).

Read also: was the most ancient erotic picture?

7. First pot of Chinese production

The invention of pottery collection, storage and preparation of food is an important step in the development of mankind. Until recently it was believed that pottery appeared about 10 thousand years ago, when the revolution of the Neolithic appeared agriculture, people began to domesticate animals and invented a millstone. The artifacts retrieved from the cave Sangrando in Jiangxi province in Southeast China, was forced to revise established hypothesis. Excavations were held here before, but the Dating of pottery were in doubt. Now the most ancient pot aged by several thousand years. First clay pots 19-20 thousand years.

8. Scottish mummy is up "Frankenstein"

DNA analysis of the dust of the people found in the British Isles, showed that the skeletons of men and women were made from the remains of at least six different people. Mummy three-month child, a young girl, a forty year old woman, and men were discovered about ten years ago on the territory of Scotland, in the archaeological site of ancient settlement Treasure-Hallen (Cladh Hallan).

9. The treasure of the Jews of the time of the Bar Kochba

Last summer in the yard of an ancient building in the vicinity of the town of Kiryat gat (Kiryat Gat) in the South of Israel, archaeologists stumbled across a treasure. A cache with precious ornaments and coins presumably refers to the time one of the most important speeches of the Jews against the Romans - the Bar Kochba revolt, which lasted from 132 135 year. Unknown rich woman wrapped in the cloth material values, hoping to ride out troubled times. Among the gold coins are rare instances ever found on the territory of Israel.

10. Egyptian funeral rook

Having acquainted with the report on the archaeological excavations of tombs of the elite necropolis Abu Rawash (Abu Rawash), which belonged to the epoch of the First dynasty (approx. 3150-2890 years BC), Egyptologist Jan Tristant (Yann Tristant) noticed something odd. The legendary French archaeologist Pierre Monte (Pierre Montet) in its report 1914, wrote that North mud-brick tombs (mastaba) found a wooden flooring. Australian scientist from Sydney thought that was strange: on the wooden decking around the mastabas no one else reported. He went down to the excavations of tombs, which a century ago described Monte. In the pit, surrounded by a wall of mud bricks, was the ancient Egyptian boat. The ship, with a length of about 6 meters, was founded approximately 2950 BC and was used for the funeral rite of the owner of the tomb - a high-ranking official.

Found nearby artifacts (clay jugs of beer and baking bread) indicate lush memorial feast. Ceremonial funeral boat repeatedly found in the Royal cemetery. They pharaohs were sent to the West - in the afterlife. However, such findings are rarely found in the tombs of people who did not belong to the members of the family of the ruler.
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