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Мавзолей в ГаликарнассеIn 352 BC in the city of Halicarnassus (Asia Minor) died king Mavsol. According to the custom of the three times the corpse of the king was burned, and the ashes placed in a burial urn. In one of the surviving legends says that the widow of king Artemisia decided to build a magnificent tomb and thus to perpetuate the memory of her husband ( another historical version, the construction of the tomb began during the life of Mausolus, Artemisia only continued it). According to the Roman historian AVL Gallia, "the Empress was fond of her husband extraordinary love, indescribable".


The Bodrum in Turkey.


To the construction and decoration of the mausoleum were attracted famous masters, including famous sculptors of Skopos, Biaxin, Leochares. The latter served as a court sculptor Alexander the great, his works were highly appreciated by the Greek philosopher Plato.

In the architecture of the mausoleum of halikarnassus for the first time in Greek architecture reflects all three famous orders: Doric, ionic and Corinthian. Nijni floor was supported by 15 Doric columns, the inner columns of the upper floors were Corinth, and external - Ionian. In the mausoleum was combined strict geometric, massive simplicity, full of inner strength, and the pursuit of decorative and ease forms, flowing lines. Analogues to this building in Greek architecture there. Largely preserving the Greek tradition and construction techniques, mausoleum of halikarnassus carries the obvious influence of Eastern architecture.

The tomb of Mausolus, named by the Romans mausoleum, was a magnificent and unusual under the form, the structure, built of bricks and covered with inside and outside the white marble. Its height reached 60 M. the First floor, where rested the urn with the ashes, had the appearance of a huge cube height of 20 m and with 5 thousand sq. M. the Second floor was omnisens outside magnificent colonnade. Here was kept sacrifice. The next floor was made in the form of multilevel pyramid, it was crowned with figures of Mausolus and Artemisia that control Quadriga - the four horses harnessed to the cart.

Almost untouched mausoleum stood for about 1800 years in the middle of the deserted town until the 15th century, when it was demolished by the crusaders, strengthened its plates its support fortress of the Aegean sea, the castle of St. Peter (mod. Bodrum in Turkey). It is in the walls of the fortress and surrounding houses were found in 1857, English archaeologist Cotonou embossed plate socket from the tombs , statues of Mausolus and his wife atremsia and huge chariot, crowning the whole structure. All these details of the mausoleum is now kept in the British Museum in London and the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul.
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