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Путь на ГолгофуFrom the XII century, when Jerusalem was the capital of the crusaders, originates Jerusalem Shrine, called today via Dolorosa - the Sorrowful, or way of the Cross. This road was following Jesus Christ through the flagellation, spitting and derision to the place of his execution - to Calvary.

The Cult Of The Passions.

From early Christian sources it is known that from IV century Easter ceremony in Jerusalem began on the mount of olives, where Jesus spent the last night before the arrest, and where in Gephsiman-sky garden made his betrayal by Judas. These places were marked Byzantine churches, where the festive procession stopped to read the sacred texts. In addition, in the Eastern tradition played an important role mount Zion, where the believers during the Easter processions reminisced about the last meal of Christ, and worshipped the place at which, it was thought, was the house of the chief priests Annas and Caiaphas, and where they had taken prisoner of Jesus. But still the center of Easter service was then left the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

By the time of gains of crusaders many early Christian Church after five centuries of Islamic rule or disappeared from the face of the earth, or turned into a heap of rubble. Knights of the cross, becoming the sole masters of Jerusalem, restored ancient custom of the Easter marches, but another seven centuries the way of the Cross remained in disordered state. Changing the number marked on it episodes, completely at random some pieces of Christian literature were replaced by other randomly shuffled along the places connected with this or that episode of the Passion.

If the worship of Calvary and the tomb of the Lord was purely local, Jerusalem origin, the cult of the passion of Christ - the phenomenon of the late middle Ages. It was developed primarily as a tradition of the Western Catholic Christians, pensive-yasya them to Jerusalem soil for several centuries. Under the influence of the Crusades in the XI-XIII centuries Western Europe lived in a state of ecstatic adoration of the Jerusalem Holy sites, and in the next century it has further aggravated the poor socio-economic crisis. The hundred years war between England and France, fierce epidemic "black death" the plague that broke out then most severe famine caused men to seek solace in religion.

The cult of the Passions of Christ, by which believers are likened the hardships of his own life, acquired an extraordinary scale. In the monastery chapels monks mystics, putting on his shoulder the cross and surrendering own ecstatic imagination, mentally overcome in night vigils way of the Cross from the last supper before his Crucifixion. Simple believers was necessary more tangible symbols, and in XIV-XV centuries in different European cities, there are many churches and altars in memory of the various episodes of the Passion. They were decorated quite naturalistic sculptural and pictorial images of gospel subjects, inspiring parishioners to take a spiritual pilgrimage.

Dobrusina to the Holy land, pilgrims came to Jerusalem with a determination to see those "stop" Christ on the way of the Cross, which were told them by spiritual teachers themselves often in the Holy city to the place. As himself Latin term "station" - "stop"and a number of episodes that are marked on today's via Dolorosa, borrowed from the Catholic tradition. Anyway, in the New Testament Gospels reference on them not.

Catholic mystics paid extremely large attention to every possible detail the way of the Cross is the number of thorns into a crown of thorns Christ, the number of strikes during the flogging, the amount spilled by the Lord tears and spoke He drops of blood.

This charm magic numbers reflected on the via Dolorosa in excess (at least, not in the New Testament) the number of "stops"associated with falling going to execution of Christ. In XVII century the monks of the Franciscans, relying on the authority of guardians of the Holy places are beginning to implement throughout Europe honoring fourteen "stations". This figure was chosen not by chance - it was a double sacred number seven". The papacy is supported "initiative", issuing a bull, according to which the worship of fourteen "stations" on the way of the Cross was given absolution.

Two cradles of the blessed virgin.

Even before the first stop on the via Dolorosa is the most important Shrine of the Catholic Church of St. Anna, mother of the virgin Mary was erected in the times of the crusaders. Catholics believe that it stands on the site of the Nativity of the virgin. Its strict and somewhat heavy outlines give an idea of the architectural style,brought by the knights of the festival to the Holy land.

It is likely that that is pretty much the least and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, if suddenly disappeared all crowding around him built and has opened its four walls.

The caves in the Church of St. Anne, which Catholics have long been revered as the place of birth of the blessed virgin, in Jerusalem, however, there is an Orthodox analogue - house of the Holy bogatchov Joachim and Anna, the parents of the virgin. It is located next door and looks very ordinary house, from the lobby which kind Arab leads you through the steep steps down to where in a damp and dark dungeon will indicate grotek - the cradle of the virgin, the Keeper of which it consists.

Workstation" Of Christ.

The first stop on via Dolorosa - the place, where two thousand years ago was located courtyard of the Praetorium - the residence of Pontius Pilate.

Now in one of the buildings, connected by an arch, is female Catholic monastery of the Sisters of Zion. The walls of the monastery Church decorated with mosaic pictures on the trial of Jesus. In the depth of the Church is in recess above the altar white marble statue of Christ in a crown of thorns and with their hands tied.

The right chapel of the Scourge, which attached the place where Christ was subjected to this terrible punishment. It is remarkable skilfully executed a stained-glass window behind the altar. In the basement of the chapel is "Lithostrotos", which translated from Greek means "cobbled place". It was the outer courtyard of the Praetorium. Here Christ was publicly questioned. According to legend, who were present at the Roman soldiers of years he was mocked for being a false prophet.

On the floor plates still drawn the Roman soldiers Fugues for IPY in the bone. This is the second "station". To the monastery building directly adjacent to the so-called Greek courtyard of the Praetorium. Here Orthodox monks will show you his prison, where the Romans contained Savior and two robbers sentenced with him to death. Over three levels under the ground you can see the deepening in the rock with stone benches and rings in the wall to prikovany prisoners. On the via Dolorosa ft turn left at the Armenian Patriarchate. Here is the third "station". On this place Christ has fallen for the first time. This event marked a small Catholic chapel, built on the money of Polish soldiers. Above the entrance to the chapel - the relief of the famous Polish sculptor Tadeusz Zelinskogo, which depicts Christ exhausted under the weight of the festival. Another dozen steps along the via Dolorosa, and the pilgrims will arise in the wall by the door of the chapel, marking according to legend, the place where Jesus met on the way of his mother. The Virgin Mary. Above the entrance to the chapel is a painting depicting the meeting.

On the corner of al - WADA and the via Dolorosa is a Franciscan chapel in memory of the fifth stop of Christ on the way of the Cross. Here Simon of Cyrene slung on his shoulders and carried further fest, which was exhausted Christ. In the wall near the entrance to the chapel noticeable deep depression. According to the legend this is the imprint of the hand of Jesus Christ, leaning wearily against the wall.

Narrow winding street leading now in the direction of the Holy Sepulcher. After a few steps pilgrims come to the chapel of St. Veronica. This place is a prostitute named Veronica wiped the sweat and blood from her forehead with Christ, in connection with which the Catholic Church has ranked it among the saints.

On the via Dolorosa street intersects with Sukhan al-Zain. Here on the corner - the entrance in the Franciscan chapel. At the entrance on the left is the rest of the column, where Christ fell for the second time. Many of which are located on the further way houses bear the seal of the distant Roman times - antique stucco, stone monoliths in the walls.

The path along this street leads to the wide staircase. If you climb on it and turn to the right, the road leads to the gates of the Coptic (direction ancient distincta followed in Ethiopia and Egypt) monastery. At the entrance, in a shallow recess, - lop-sided column. It marks the place where Jesus fell for the third time.

Other workstation", as we have said, are not on the via Dolorosa, and the FAM of the Holy Sepulchre.

Prose greatest tragedy.

On Good Friday, on Orthodox Easter since early morning, the pilgrims gather at the Greek Pretoria (Catholics in Pretoria Rome, near "ECCE Homo"). From these places they go to Calvary for fevim the narrow streets of old Jerusalem. The place of the crucifixion of the Savior is under the arches of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Who goes there in silence and prayer singing in Slavonic, Greek, Romanian and English. The Orthodox head the Procession of the Greek Metropolitan - he bears on his shoulders the cross of a human scale, which brings to Golgotha, the place of the crucifixion of Christ.
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