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Viewings: 6791About Queen Hatshepsut heard many. The people of New time know the ruler of Ancient Egypt is extant grandiose constructions, Hatshepsut temple at Deir El-Bahri, the stories about the destruction of the cartouches with her name.
Queen Hatshepsut, a throne name Maatkara, was the fifth ruler of the eighteenth dynasty, which began with Pharaoh Ahmose about 1551 BC after the expulsion of the Hyksos.
Hatshepsut was the daughter of Tuthmosis I and his main Royal wife, ahmes. The Thutmose I was a second wife, Mutnofret, who bore him heir, Tuthmosis II, but since it was not the main spouse, this is the heir strengthened its rights to the throne by marrying the daughter of Pharao from the main wives in the veins of which flowed the blood of the pharaohs. In addition, from the concubines of ISIS (less noble origin), his son - Thutmosis III. Thutmose II, Royal husband (and half brother) Hatshepsut, short-rules-blessed country Kemet, so that his throne was to take the "fledgling chick" Thutmose III. While stepson-nephew of Hatshepsut was too young to become the ruler of this, she took control of the country itself.
When Hatshepsut was told to call yourself a Pharaoh, is not precisely known. The inscriptions on the monuments related to the period from 2 to 7 years from the moment of accession of Tuthmosis III, called his name and titles. Later Hatshepsut added the reign of his stepson to his reign, and he was named co-ruler. Preserved image of Hatshepsut, where behind it there is a small Thutmose III. At this time they were both considered legitimate by the pharaohs, and all the reign of Hatshepsut Thutmosis III was kept in the shadows and came to the throne only after her death.
Tsarina Hatshepsut Maatkara tried to legitimize his claim to the throne of our divine origin, in which it must be firmly believed. It is extremely important that in her veins the blood of God. Portraits of Hatshepsut rich in detail, pointing to its divine origin and telling the story of her birth on earth. Her Divine Father, as these stories was God Amon, who have lien with her mother Queen of ahmas. God Amon took on the form of the spouse of the Queen of Tuthmosis I - gods all can! and gave his divine seed in the womb of ahmas. The Queen could not learn Amon through the alien aroma from which her whole being was filled with selfless love.
Oracles powerful gods predicted the fate of Queen Hatshepsut. In the temple at Karnak during Opet - fun national holiday of Amun - spoke statue of the God Amun and announced, that noble Hatshepsut was destined to become the Pharaoh. Oracle confirmed the prophecy the words: "You are standing at the head of all mortals." Hatshepsut - beloved of Amun, because she was elected twice: once Amon in the way of her father made her his chosen one, and the second time he informed her fate through the Oracle divination. Thus Hatshepsut got a legal right to the throne of Pharaoh Upper and Lower Egypt.
Most evidence about Hatshepsut remained named in her honor the temple of Deir El-Bahri. This temple has three terraces, lying one above the other, so it is also called Terraced temple. The upper terrace makes the entrance into the inner room of the temple, which itself Hatshepsut gave the name "Djoser to Djoser" - "the most Sacred of the sacred." This temple, no doubt, is an architectural masterpiece. He brilliantly written in the surrounding rocks and symbolically unites free space, light and stone, harmoniously linking together.
In the hall of columns can be considered allegedly real-life scenes, carved in stone with exceptional taste and elegance. Even after death Hatshepsut of Egypt, the pilgrims came to this temple to honor bot Amon. Perhaps this temple was famed Holy and healing place. The Egyptians in many flocked to the temple Amon to ask for healing from physical and mental diseases, and took down his ailing body and sorrowful spirit relatives. It is known, that in IV-V centuries ad, the temple of Hatshepsut was the last time was used as a religious sanctuary - it took in hand the Christian monks.
On the 9th year of his reign Pharaoh Hatshepsut ordered his generals to prepare for a trip to the land of punt. According to own statements of the Queen, on this difficult feat had called her the wish of the God Amun, who told her that she should get it for gods incense, necessary for making of the temple rituals. The Oracle gave her in vague terms, the route to this country: "Find the way to punt. Go out on the road towards the terraces Mirren. Lead his army by sea and land -- to bring a miracle for God, the Creator of beauty." Mysterious punt was, presumably, to the South-East of Egypt, near the Eritrea and Somalia.
Shopping expedition went on five Egyptian ships and a complete success. Ships not only successfully overcame all difficulties distant and obscure ways, but returned, heavily Laden with valuable goods. They brought ebony, slaves, monkey, leopard fur, and most importantly, the frankincense, precious aromatic resin. In addition thickened resin, the Egyptians took to the ships even whole trees with roots and clods of earth to be transplanted, to grow and to collect the resin from incisions in the bark. Impressive scene return flotilla home carved on the stone walls of the temple in the capital. A large part of imported resources were given to the priests of the temple of Amun. Hatshepsut was able to maintain good relations with influential priests, without which it was not possible neither to assume the throne, nor to rule the country.
Invasion of Hyksos and their dominion was interrupted from time immemorial established trade links with the tribes that inhabited the shores of the red sea. Hatshepsut his campaign resumed his interrupted trade and established strong relations with the far outskirts of Egypt. "Divine Hatshepsut was engaged in the Affairs of the country of the two lands on their own purposes. Egypt worked, putting his head in front of her, beautiful divine seed that went forth from God. She was a rope which are pulling the North pole, is attached to the South; it was perfect Navigator at the helm of the North, Mrs., which gives orders whose excellent mark appease both the ground when she says," glorify the woman-Pharaoh of the inscription at the temple of Amun in Karnak.
From the great Queen Hatshepsut remained fragments of monumental obelisks, which she ordered to build in the temple of Amun in Karnak. The first pair of obelisks established in honor of her coronation on the throne of the pharaohs of Egypt, and the second pair marked the triumph of "hessed"which was celebrated on the 15th year of the reign of Pharaoh Hatshepsut.
The first two obelisk standing in the Eastern part of the temple of Amun and, unfortunately, badly damaged. Watched the manufacture and installation of obelisks Senenmut, trusted assistant of the Queen, who left traces of its presence on the rock quarry under the Aswan. "Great Queen, rewarded universal admiration, the great love, which gave her father the Kingdom of RA, true in all his divine manifestations, the Pharaoh's Daughter, Sister of Pharaoh, the Wife of God, the Great Royal Wife Hatshepsut..."
The Keeper of the seal and General Manager of the estates of the Wife of God in the most flourishes reported divine ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt Hatshepsut that his care all work on two obelisks finished: "Everything was done as ordered, everything happened according to the will of Your Majesty". Since the transfer of the titles of the ruler was not named her throne name Maatkara, we can conclude that we are talking about the first obelisks, established by the time of the proclamation of the Pharaoh Hatshepsut.
The second pair of obelisks is located in the main hall of Tuthmosis I, father Hatshepsut, between the fourth and fifth columns. They are set near the obelisks of the father, so we immediately see that they are much higher obelisks Tuthmosis I - 10 M. the Weight of these giants is 323 so On the content of the inscriptions on the stone block with relief uniquely determined that these obelisks installed later is the second pair. Now from two obelisks second pair there is only one, and the other lies broken on the banks of the sacred temple of the lake. Itself Hatshepsut stressed that her heart told her to erect these obelisks to Amon, the divine father: "I was sitting in his yard and was thinking about the Creator. My heart told me erected two obelisks that they reached peaks up to the sky, in the ceremonial hall of columns between the two great pillars of Pharaoh..."
Pharaoh Hatshepsut rule Egypt for quite a long time: according to different data, from 20 to 22.5 years. Records of it are missing after 1457 B.C. there has been No evidence of violent death, as there is no direct indication that she was expelled or fled from Egypt. Thutmosis III in the last years of the reign of his stepmother Hatshepsut played a significant role in the leadership of the Egyptian army. He even was appointed commander and led the expedition to Sinai and the two campaigns to Nubia, attempted to intimidate them Nubians.
Nubia was still attracted to the Egyptians the ability to capture slaves who have become widely used in private households not only the nobility, but also medium layers of the population. Nubia for centuries remained the major source of raw materials, from there, bringing gold. Invasion of Hyksos weakened the power of Egypt in Nubia, there hfrequent riots broke out. So, the instruction of Hatshepsut, this heir, Tuthmosis III, was of vital importance for the country. Hardly a powerful woman-Pharaoh withdrew from work earlier than Thutmose III came to the throne as a full Pharaoh. Perhaps military campaigns led troops in remote areas were also a way to remove the successor from the capital.
Originally historians have prevailed erroneous assumption that Thutmose III immediately after the death of the hated stepmother hastened to start destroying the cartouches with her name. Recent studies in the so-called chambers Hatshepsut temple at Karnak show that during the reign of Tuthmosis III were really chipped cartouches with the throne name Hatshepsut and the front of the statues representing the woman-Pharaoh, but it happened, most likely, in the last years of his reign.
When Hatshepsut was the wife of Pharaoh Thutmose II, she orders began construction of own tombs in the cliffs of Wadi-Sikkat-Taka-El-Zeid, South of the temple of Deir El-Bahri (which opened Carter in 1916). Later, when Hatshepsut had made the proclamation of Pharaoh, this tomb, probably seemed to her not sufficiently Grand and majestic as a full Pharaoh she was supposed burial in the Valley of the Kings. In any case, the construction was stopped and the tomb remained unfinished. Now Hatshepsut temple has official designation KV20. This is the tomb consists of several underground corridors, which total length is 213 feet Some of the tunnels tombs go down to a depth of 97 meters of Many archaeologists and Egyptologists, in particular John Wilkinson and James Burton, examined the tomb on the edge of the rock ledge, but found nothing out of the ordinary. In 1903 Howard Carter and Theodore Davis cleared the tomb of Hatshepsut from sand and debris.
Scorching heat, dust, stone chips and shards, lack of light and air made it very difficult archaeologists work. Carter got to the last corners of tunnels tomb, he pulled out all the items that were found there, including stone vases, on which were inscribed the names of the chief wife of Pharaoh Thutmose I, ahmas and the Pharaoh Tuthmosis I. In the burial chamber Carter saw two sarcophagus of quartzite - crystalline rock, consisting mainly of quartz. One of the sarcophagi were intended for Tuthmosis I, father Hatshepsut, the second for herself.
The impressive size of the tombs suggest that it was built by Hineni is an outstanding architect and an influential courtier during the XVIII dynasty pharaohs. Ineni worked on the expansion of the temple buildings in Carnac even when Pharaoh Amenhotep I, and when Tuthmosis I became mayor in Thebes. In all likelihood, rich and distinguished Builder played a role in the ascent to the throne of the Royal Hatshepsut, who paid a great attention to the reconstruction and improvement of degraded when the Hyksos ancient temples and built new edifice.
Thutmose III, apparently, ordered to build for Thutmose I new tomb (KV38) and moved back to his mummy from the "wrong" tombs created when Pharaoh-woman. The mummy of Hatshepsut still not identified and, perhaps, not even found.
From diverse sepulchral inventory of preserved only canepa, small drawer from alabaster, with full title lists all titles Pharaoh Hatshepsut. In this urn probably kept mummified liver Hatshepsut, but in the period of XXI dynasty urn was reused at the burial. Canopy of alabaster, and the sarcophagus of quartzite, is kept in the Museum of Egyptian antiquities in Cairo.
Hatshepsut, a strong and powerful woman, proud of his high birth, 20 years were not allowed to come to the throne of his stepson, already in childhood declared legitimate heir to the throne. At first it was really too young for public Affairs, and Egyptian traditions to the throne was erected Pharaoh, upon reaching the age of 12. But then stepson has matured (about weakness and pain young Tuthmosis III, there is no information), and Hatshepsut was not going to give way to a successor. Presumably, she was sure that she had more rights in the Egyptian throne, than a young man, born of the woman who had neither titles nor noble relatives. Thutmose III hardly shared her confidence. But he probably had no support among priests and nobility and therefore was forced from time to time to come to terms with the circumstances. Is it any wonder that he has taken all measures to erase even the memory of the hated woman? It is true, but not all.
Father Hatshepsut was not going to be the Pharaoh, he was a military commander under the Amenhotep I and was appointed Governor only because Pharaoh was not the son. Hatshepsut ("the First of the respectable") was proud of his father-commander, probably remembering his return from the victorious campaigns. After the death of Thutmose I was all done according to the Egyptian tradition: the Throne of Pharaoh took his son Thutmosis II, and the daughter of Pharaoh Hatshepsut became the main new wife of Pharaoh, her stepbrother. Thutmose II of rules not for long, not more than four years, but left a bad memory. He led punitive campaign to suppress the uprising in Nubia and senseless cruelty killed thousands of Nubians, not sparing even small children. While the Pharaoh was on the outskirts of the Empire, Hatshepsut remained in the capital. We can assume that the sister was far-sighted and smarter brother and during his reign played the role of "gray cardinal" behind him. Eloquent stone witnesses - ancient Egyptian monuments of architecture - are silent about this. Preserved relief image, created during the reign of Tuthmosis II, look quite traditionally, the chief wife of the Pharaoh modestly kept in the background, knowing your place, and at that time she was about 15 years old.
Hatshepsut had a daughter to Nemuro, which bore the title of the Wife of the Sun and was the main priestess of Amun. Give birth to Pharaoh heir Hatshepsut had no time, and after his death the official Pharaoh is the son of a concubine, and actually manages Egypt widow - chief of the spouse of the deceased Pharaoh. The images first years of the reign of Tuthmosis III, they are represented together, and Hatshepsut behind the young Pharaoh.
And suddenly occurs fundamental revolution. Suddenly the image of Hatshepsut, equipped with all the official titles of the Egyptian Pharaoh, and her stepson is the heir, not playing any independent role.
Unheard - of Hatshepsut announces itself as the only lawful Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt. She claims that it was her father bequeathed his throne when she was born. She takes a new throne name Maatkara, which meant "the Truth is the counterpart of the sun God RA, to emphasize its divine origin. She orders to build myself a new main tomb in the Valley of the Kings, where they found the last resting place only pharaohs and not their wives and daughters. It even appears on the official ceremonies in the traditional clothing of the pharaohs and with attached beard. In its order on the reliefs and statues of her face and a figure much to lose not only the individual traits, but the signs of a female. The images from the second half of the Board of the female Pharaoh Hatshepsut she wide men's shoulders and flat muscular chest. Obviously, the subjects did not matter that Hatshepsut - woman. Ceremonies even priests and courtiers saw it from the outside, but ordinary people hardly have been honored to see Pharaoh's near - except that from a distance, like a glowing symbol of the sun.
But the woman-Pharaoh, of course, was his inner circle - House-sky, the Supreme priest Amon, a prominent commander Nejsi, the court of architects Tight, Inane, senior civil servants, came from the hereditary nobility, advisers and military commanders, without which it was impossible to do. They supported, helped to come to power, helped in the implementation of economic plans. Among the court, of course, the first place is Senenmut (or Senmut) - the figure is highly mysterious.
The first mention of Senmut belong to the reign of Tuthmosis I. He began climbing the ladder even when father Hatshepsut, it is possible that she knew him already. Senenmut appeared in Thebes and stood out among the officials of razporeditelnite, eloquence and versatile knowledge. He proved himself to be clever and active administrator.
Senenmut not belonged to the nobility. He was born in the countryside, in Armance (Uni), in a poor family Ramos and his wife Hatnofer. Detailed information about them, simple Egyptians, not left, but Senenmut himself supervised the construction of the tombs for themselves and their parents, and therefore took care to perpetuate the memory about these humble people far from the family of Pharaoh, and in General the powerful of this world. In fact, about its origin it is only known from inscriptions in the burial of his parents found under the terrace in front of the tomb of Senenmut.
On the sarcophagus of the father is present, the title of " Decent", which practically meant nothing, because Oh belonged to any deceased. Hatnofer titled "the mistress of the house" - from here we can conclude that the family was wealthy enough to live in their own home. The sarcophagus of the mother of Senenmut decorated with much richer than the sarcophagus of the father, and the mummification of the mother's body is made much more thoroughly. This suggests that father died early and his mother survived spouse for many years. Hatnofer died on 6 or 7 year of the reign of Hatshepsut. Because Senenmut was held at the court of the important post of the chief tutor of the daughter of Hatshepsut Nefrura and General Manager of the yard, he had access to warehouses funeral accessories, so they buried her to mate with honours and paid a dear mummification, the front of the sarcophagus, Golden scarab, the Golden mask, canopy.
ToAK began the career development of Senenmut can only speculate. At that time in Egypt about 5 percent of the population skillfully to write and read - mostly immigrants from the higher social classes: nobles and priests. Public office at the court, in the capital or in the provinces often received military and graduated from the service, as well as their children. Perhaps Senenmut was also a member of the military environment, this can be attributed to its solid education and participation in military operations. But owned texts Senenmut silent about toiletries family to military estate.
Senenmut were two sisters. At first mistakenly believed that it is his wife, but the design of the tombs of Senenmut disproves this assumption. According to tradition, the deceased was depicted together with his wife, and Senenmut presented without his wife. His children also have no information. He asked his brother Amenemhet to take care of his burial ritual and maintaining mortuary temple, but traditionally this was done by the elder son...
In official documents of XVIII dynasty Senenmut appears in the reign of Tuthmosis I, as Keeper of the seals, and then during the reign of her husband Hatshepsut Tuthmosis II as General Manager of the court of the Wife of God (Hatshepsut) and the tutor of the king's daughters (Nefrura). Several statues from this period include Senenmut necessarily with his ward Nemuro on hand.
When Hatshepsut became the ruler of Egypt in juvenile Here-Mose III (about 1490 BC), the position of Senenmut at the court has increased, and soon he was awarded numerous courtiers titles, for example only friend of Pharaoh, the chief inspector of the bathroom, the inspector eyes of Pharaoh, the inspector ceremonial hall and the jailer both granaries of the temple of Amun. Later, he became the Manager of the estates of Amun. In his hands was great treasures of the temple of Amun - gold, precious stones, agricultural lands, livestock and workshops. Senenmut has become one of the most influential people in Egypt. After the coronation of Hatshepsut it has received appointment to a high post chagi (Governor) of Upper Egypt.
Senenmut officially oversaw the construction of major facilities, built during the rule of the woman-Pharaoh Hatshepsut, but, in all probability, was not only official, but also a talented architect. He was able to translate into stone wishes divine Hatshepsut. Senenmut built it funerary temple of Deir El-Bahri to the West of Thebes ("Djoser to Djoser" - "the most Sacred of the sacred"), and, though he followed the age-old traditions of his work different from that of the neighbouring Church of Mentuhotep II wonderfully slim.
A thousand years before the building of the Greek Parthenon this temple is already showed the world harmony, stability and majestic beauty. Three wide terraces are decorated with porticos with columns made of white stone. Massive ramps in the middle led up to the sanctuary of the temple. The terraces of the temple are covered with bright polychrome painting, with numerous images of Queen Hatshepsut. Kneeling colossal statues and sphinxes completed the decoration of the temple terraces. The first of terraces led a long Avenue of myrrh trees along which stood the sphinxes of the Queen. They were two sides of the road with a width of about 40 m, leading from the lower terraces of the temple to the fertile fields in the valley of the Nile, which was placed massive high pylon.
Before the actual temple broke luxurious garden with decorative trees and bushes brought from distant places, dug at right angles to each other long canals filled with water.
It is a miracle in the desert rocks created for incomparable Hatshepsut it was a court architect of Senenmut. The constructed buildings is not only temples and tombs, this is a Declaration of love, inspirational song, made of stone. Whether it was for the woman-Pharaoh's just administrative officer and a useful Advisor? Or connected them closer relationship? Did it to him in return? This is the great mystery of Hatshepsut. In official reports on the progress of construction of Senenmut refers to his mistress, as expected, with the transfer of its titles, and calls himself her "Lover". What is it - another title nobleman?
All secret ever necessarily becomes obvious. Surrounded personal guards, fenced off from the rest of the world faithful priests and court, could the woman-Pharaoh to afford an affair with her expensive? For the enjoyment of the highest power, which did not have many full pharaohs-men, Hatshepsut paid by the lack of privacy. The only way she could climb to the pinnacle of power and stay there.
According to the custom of Ancient Egypt, after the death of his son Pharaoh was enthroned upon reaching the age of 12. If the legitimate heir was not, but remained a widow of Imperial blood, the pretender to the throne took her to wife. So, by marrying the noble Asmus, was Pharaoh Thutmose I, father Hatshepsut. The Hatshepsut was not to accept such men of high origin, which it could entrust my future and, first of all, the management of the country. The chief wife of the Pharaoh in any case would not play a leading role, and it would not have been able to carry out their plans. Perhaps Senenmut was the right person, about what she wanted. But what about the blood of the pharaohs? Senenmut came from a humble family, and daughter of God had no right to defile himself Union with a commoner.
The proximity of Hatshepsut with his court architect, probably, was known to all the courtiers. She was obviously trusted Senenmut and in response to his sincere dedication has allowed him to build his tomb near her - an unprecedented act of grace on the part of the Pharaoh. But his tomb was found empty, mummy Senenmut were discovered, and the mummy of Hatshepsut.
In history there have been cases of unknown disappearance very important persons, with their death. Concerning the disappearance of Hatshepsut, too, there is a version, that her death was staged. Mention of Senenmut stopped before the end of the reign of Hatshepsut, but his death is not known. It is not excluded that Hatshepsut gone but not in the other world, and not one but with your loved one, and her death was staged by the faithful few, perhaps using double. To organize such demonstrations, in principle, possible, but to find traces of it, to find evidence of substitution, after many centuries, this is unrealistic. So Hatshepsut managed to keep his secret.
And leave her it was time - the heir to the throne has grown and matured. To leave him in his shadow was impractical and dangerous. And here we come across another secret of Queen Hatshepsut. Who is Thutmose III?
Stepson of Hatshepsut and its successor on the Egyptian throne, Thutmosis III has happened from that of her husband, Tuthmosis II, with a concubine named ISIS. The mother of Tuthmosis III, obviously, was not of the Royal line, but grew up in the yard with the children of Tuthmosis I. Girls that played in childhood children of Pharaoh, was the name of the Decoration of the yard. These girls came from a respectable wealthy families. In the few texts that mention the mother of Tuthmosis III ISIS, it is of no title, which would indicate the relationship with the Royal family. The only image of the mother of Tuthmosis III (found in Carnac signed a seated statue of black granite) is it in the original crown with two urami - characters belonging to the family of Pharaoh. The statue is the inscription, from which it follows that Pharaoh Thutmose III was erected this monument to his mother, "Mother of the Pharaoh". All other titles Spouse of God, the chief wife of the Pharaoh, which can be found in the temple of Tuthmosis III, the son came to his mother retroactively. In Egypt, where the titles attached great importance, this meant that no title ISIS had. Its true origin is nowhere mentioned.
Therefore, Thutmose III, both paternal and maternal side was not of Royal blood. His claim to the throne than the descendants of Ahmose I were unfounded. Only marriage to Nefrura, daughter of Hatshepsut, which is inherited from it the title of the Wife of God, would be sufficient grounds for the enthronement of Tuthmosis III. However, there is no evidence that Nefrura became the spouse of Tuthmosis III. The unlikely even that in the moment when he was declared the heir to the throne, she reached the age sufficient for marriage. Hatshepsut probably would have tried to prevent this marriage, as in this case, Thutmosis III has gained the right to become the lawful Pharaoh, and she generally would have remained on the sidelines. Spouse of Tuthmosis III Meritra Hatshepsut II, the mother of his son and heir of Amenhotep II, it is considered the second daughter of Queen Hatshepsut, but this is not certain. On the preserved monuments she never wears the title of a Daughter of God, and therefore could not be a daughter of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis II. The inscription in the tomb of Amenhotep II describes his mother as the Spouse of God, the first wife of Pharaoh, the Queen of the two countries and the Mother of a Pharaoh. Probably, she was awarded the title of the Wife of God after death Hatshepsut and Nefrura.
"A boy from the harem, the son of an obscure concubines, were quite satisfied widowed Hatshepsut as the heir to the throne. First, because he was still quite small, and secondly, he obviously did not have strong support from priests and generic landowning aristocracy. Unknown, by whose will, but after the death of Tuthmosis II, whether natural or not) things went not in accordance with the tradition of Ancient Egypt: a small child proclaimed Pharaoh, and the widow - Empress. Assuming that Thutmose III was not stepson, and native son of the Hatshepsut, and she wanted until the boy grew up, to concentrate all power, then chose the surest put the child enshrined titSt heir, and she could autocratic rule, declaring himself the Pharaoh to get rid of applicants for her hand.
Hatshepsut was really smart and brave woman, convinced that their right to the throne and firmly knew how to run the country in order to achieve prosperity. Ancient Egypt was fabulously rich, but almost 200-year rule of the outlanders-the Hyksos, and then years of war have devastated him. There were a lot of gold, well organized, highly paid professional army, but agriculture was exhausted, agricultural province depopulated. Hatshepsut set high grain prices, has created conditions for development of agriculture, managed to negotiate with the neighbors, with which long time were strife, have minimized the armed intervention in the internal and external politics - even with a rebellious Nubia in her reign installed more peaceful communication than bloodthirsty Tuthmosis II. She left heir Tuthmosis III prosperous, peaceful Egypt. If she somehow erred against tradition and religion, the game was worth the candle.
There is another variant of completion of the eventful life of the woman-Pharaoh, namely: it could kill. As her lover - the court architect of Senenmut. Thutmose III was held at Hatshepsut decent and honorable place, but the time has come, when his patience snapped, and he decided that the lawful Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt - it was he, and arrogant stepmother (or mother?) need to lose from the throne. The most radical method is murder. For 20 years of the reign of Hatshepsut heir could "grow into" useful links, buy supporters awaiting his ascent to the pinnacle of power. The situation at the court of Pharaoh, women probably changed not in her favor. If Hatshepsut had not died from the disease, not hidden in secret, prepared asylum, then helped her quickly go to the underground afterlife realm of the God Osiris. Whether for Thutmose III diligently destroyed the traces of stay at authority of his predecessor, to obscure the moment of change of the rulers of Egypt?
Thutmose III became the great Pharaoh. He did a lot for prosperity, and the exaltation of his country. And also tried to erase from the memory of compatriots woman-Pharaoh, because if the Queen Hatshepsut Maatkara be forgotten, no one will remember how she died... Chopping immediately after the burial, the front part of the statues of Hatshepsut and cartouches with stone obelisks it would be rude and unreasonable. Much more useful to do it after two decades, when already a lot of water has flowed in the sacred river Nile.
Not surprising that the proud Hatshepsut took with him his secrets, and we can never know the whole truth about it.
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