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Гонки вооружения в глубинах океановIn one of the articles described dive James Cameron at the bottom of the Mariana trench. And somebody down there before him?

A record that no one could break

on January 23, 1960, two young men - Jacques Piccard and don Walsh went down in a bathyscaphe "Trieste" at the bottom of the Abyss Challenger in the Mariana trench. Thus, they have set a record in deep diving and wrote their names into the history of study of the World ocean.

Marianas trench is located in the West of the Pacific ocean along the Islands of the same name. Its length is 1500, and the depth is about 11 kilometers. For Swiss Jacques Picard was not the first dive on the "Trieste". The bathyscaphe was designed by his father - Auguste Piccard and launched in 1953. The apparatus has passed several successful tests in the Mediterranean sea. In them participated and well-known scientist-oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau. Its name the device has received from the Italian city of Trieste, which were the main work of his creation. Son helped his father is a physicist and inventor from school, so the question of who will be the pilot of bathyscaphe, has long been settled.

The second crew member was an American, a Lieutenant of the Navy don Walsh.

This dive was a real challenge for both participants of the expedition. At a depth of 3000 meters bilged one of the devices, and Aquaman stress listened to the tiny peep in the skin. But already at a depth of 4000 meters device tightly something grieved pressure, flow stopped and the boys sighed with relief.

And at a depth of 9000 meters there was a crack, and the bathyscaphe twitched, as if he had hit a wall. No one realized that it was.

But when the Trieste hit bottom, the joy of our heroes no bounds. If not a tiny capsule size is only about three cubic meters, two-meter Jacques and his less tall friend probably started would be in place.

However, due to the cracked glass illuminator Aquaman decided to emerge in 20 minutes. Surgery for descent and ascent called "Nekton" took only eight and a half hours and was successfully completed.

On the ready, set, go!

For several decades after immersion "Trieste" no one was never able to repeat the achievement of Jacques and don. Only in 1995-1998 Japanese deep drone "Kiko" made three dives in the area of the Abyss of the Challenger.

And in may 2009 unmanned submarine "Nereus"created Woodshole Oceanographic Institute (USA), became the third machine, reached the bottom of the Mariana trench in the entire history of its study.

Unfortunately, human capabilities are very limited. Military submarines can't dive deeper 1400 metres, and until recently modern research submersibles with a man on Board did not fall below 6500 meters. However, science does not stand still, and enthusiasts are ready to invest in the development of deepwater technology. In the past few years, teams from different countries were preparing to repeat the immersion "Trieste". They had something to fight in 2010 innovation Fund X-Prize from new Jersey (USA) announced a prize of ten million dollars to the one who will sink to the bottom of the Mariana trench.

The first to receive the coveted prize hoped the Americans Richard Branson and Chris Welch, who invested all their savings in the design of the device Deep Flight Challenger. The purpose dive to explore the marine life of vertebrates, and to find the whole keys and lakes of carbon dioxide at the bottom of the World ocean. The distinctive feature of this device, stabilizers in the form of an inverted wing aircraft. This design, according to the Creator of the office of the Englishman G-ham hawks, would allow the bathyscaphe "dig" into the water column, facilitating the descent into the abyss.

Competition Branson and Welch's has decided to make the company Triton Submarines from Florida. However, this team has the goal, rather, Mercantile. The company plans to produce and sell a deep-diving vehicles. Dive to the bottom of the deepest depression in the World ocean would be a great advertisement for the project.

Even among the contenders for the prize and world fame were the Chinese. Trial dive their bathyscaphe Jiaolong took place in July last year. The device with a pilot on Board safely descended 5057 meters. However, the pragmatic inhabitants of the celestial Empire interests are very different. In 2001 China has received from the international organisation International Seabed Authority, UN organisations, the right to develop mineral deposits in the area of the Mariana trench. Of course, China is not in a hurry to open the door in underwater-underground pantries, which offers countless treasures.

To become a winner in this race was planning another American company - Deep Ocean Exploration and Research, of San 2000 Francisco. The head of the company of the famous scientist - oceanographer Sylvia Earle, received in the scientific world title Your deep water. $000 with its links Mrs. Earl was able to provide adequate financing of the project, in which took part the company 10 LLC Google. And, finally, the fifth participant of the race became famous film Director and IP - 11 035 CATEL adventure James Cameron.

Underwater Odyssey Cameron

on March 26, James Cameron alone descended to the bottom of the Abyss the challenge of RA in deep-sea vehicle Deepsea Challenge and spent on the ocean floor about three hours, taking on thirty-cameras all that could be seen through the Windows. On the creation of the apparatus has left 10 million dollars. Its design was developed in Australia known engineer and caver Ronnie Allum.

During the dive from the terrible pressure - more than a ton per square centimeter - bathyscaphe "cringed" ten centimeters, and glass Windows bent inward. According to aquanauta, as if he had been on another planet, where they live mysterious pale and eyeless creature. Thus, Cameron became the third person in the world who managed to conquer the deepest point of the ocean.

It is known that Cameron has already signed a contract with National Geographic about making a documentary about his underwater Odyssey.

Secrets of ocean

Why do people insist on aim in the depths of the ocean? For many reasons. Some, such as the Chinese, think about how to get raw materials for its economy. Others hope to earn good money by selling deep-diving vehicles. Still others dream of fame or research career. But whatever other goals pursued the Aquaman, they are always ready to help science. Indeed, in the depths of the ocean are many hidden secrets, the secret of which can help to humanity in the solution of many problems.

Even pilots "Trieste" found at the bottom of the ocean six species unknown to science beings, including flat fish length of about 30 centimetres.

Unfortunately, Cameron has failed to take samples of the soil and water, denied hydraulics. But he has plans for at least three immersion. In addition, it was shown that at large depths there are vertical currents, which allowed to close the controversial project of the underwater disposal of nuclear waste.

According to reports of the scientific journal Science, Japanese spacecraft Keiko took samples of soil at the bottom of the Abyss the challenge of RA, in which scientists have discovered 13 species previously unknown to science unicellular. Their fossilized twins were discovered 30 years ago in Russia, Sweden and Austria in the soil, the age of which one billion years. They are the oldest known now inhabitants of our planet.

The bathyscaphe "Nereus" managed to photograph fish-dragon, glowing fish, invertebrates that live in long chitin tubes, gastropods, a two-meter worms and many other mysterious animals.

Today in the ocean on greater depths working American submersibles Aluminaut and Alvin, canadian Pisces and others. And given that since 1960 designed and successfully employs more than 300 Autonomous vehicles for research of the shelf, able to go deeper, there is no doubt that all the mysteries of the ocean, sooner or later, will be disclosed.
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