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Viewings: 7041Can the Western society to learn the backward "natives" - residents traditional communities? Deep down, many people "civilized" the world consider their primitive savages. But anthropologists believe we have a lot to learn from the tribes of New Guinea or the Amazon, although in some aspects of their life and looks retarded or shocking.
American anthropologist Jared diamond in 1964 for a long time staying in New Guinea. In this amazing corner of the globe, despite the proximity to the equator, often it is snowing and shining glaciers. On a small piece of land where you can find several different ecosystems; and on this territory live thousands of small tribes, each with its own language and way of life. Civilization is almost not touched these lands: until recently, the natives used stone tools.
In 1997, diamond released the book "Guns, germs and steel" (Guns, Germs, and Steel), which offered a very interesting explanation of the reasons for the dominance of Western civilization in the world and received the Pulitzer prize. It should be noted that the scientist is far from rasistiska theories. "My main goal was to reach the ultimate reason to trace the historical chain of causality to the maximum distance back", the author writes in the Preface to his work.
Currently scientist focused on the traditions and culture of primitive communities. A new book by Jared diamond's called "the World until yesterday: what can we learn from traditional societies" (The World Until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies. Diamond admits that at the beginning psychologically natives seemed similar to representatives of the Western world. But, long live near them, he gradually began to notice the differences. The first thing that catches your eye - striking openness of the natives, says diamond. About the same distinctive trait of traditional communities said Jean Liedloff, who lived about four years in the Amazon jungle Indians of a tribe of CWANA.
For example, the stories of Liedloff, "cry on his shoulder" u CWANA is not a metaphor. Even an adult, if he's upset that comes close to him, woman, mother, aunt, or his wife, and is weeping in her arms. If the mother of adult women or single men died, no matter how many years they at that moment may be, tribe "appoints" they kind of adopted mother, guardian, which assumes emotional functions of the deceased. We can say that this function in the modern Western world do psychotherapists. (By the way, according to Liedloff, the woman that come to cry, saves the apparent calm, even indifference. She just "accept" feelings grieving, not commenting on them and not stopping the flow of tears, until the man will not rest on their own - almost as a psychologist).
Striking significant differences in the upbringing of children, says diamond. Tribes of New Guinea a very different attitude to risk. At a very early age, children have the right to own decisions, and freedom of movement. Western man horrifying thought, for example, to leave year-old child at a fire. How it is possible to admit, indignant "civilized" parents because the child may burn yourself, get scarred for life and even die! However, the new Guinea natives rightly believe that experience is the best teacher. To keep up the child in every second of his life impossible, and therefore, the sooner he will learn to understand the consequences of their actions - the better off it will be. It's hard to argue.
Jean Liedloff reported similar attitudes to children at amazoncouk Indians: "In CWANA the mother or a person who replaces, very calm attitude towards the child and usually busy with something not related to business. Meanwhile, they are ready at any moment to meet the baby, crawling or creeping returning next adventure. Mother never ceases to cook or do any other case, unless you want her full attention. It is not obvious to the baby with open arms, but quiet and businesslike allows the child to be near her or, if she goes from place to place, put him on the thigh, and carry on, while supporting his".
But every practical experience - small household assistance or care even more younger children are at CWANA the fact that uniquely useful for children. No one forces them to this, and perhaps because children readily incorporated into "adults" classes. "Imitating men, boys learn about their place in the culture and about the structure of their society. A little grown up, girls will be to follow the example of women and actively participate in their classes. Child will be given the necessary tools, if he can't make them myself.
For example, a toddler can paddle in a canoe or play rowing long before will be able to carve out for themselves the paddle. So when the time comes, baby give a little paddle made for adults. Boys do little bows and arrows before they learn to speak; and they have an opportunity to practice and improve themselves in shooting" - says Liedloff.
"Ideally, adults give the child an example not to influence it, but just their natural behavior: concentrated doing everyday things, not paying much attention to child and noticing it only when it is required, and only to the extent necessary", she adds.
To inventions that need to rationalize the life, CWANA also very special relationship. They especially appreciate the notion from the point of view of psychological comfort. Liedloff described that, for example, to build the pipeline from bamboo pipes would not be for CWANA problem. But women, several times a day down to the river and received a visible pleasure - this time they are used for communication, bathed, exchanged news. And because the water was just recognized as unnecessary, why deprive women from the tribe of their pleasure?
The idea to place a child into a certain resemblance of the arena was also otorgante. Since children were frightened and crying, finding himself in a wooden "cage", tribe unanimously dismissed the idea of harmful and abandoned it: "I saw the Indian Dududu was doing something. It turned out that it was almost finished playpen. It represented a vertical pegs attached at the top and bottom lianas to the square frames. (...) Then he went looking for his son Kanagasingam, which began to walk only a week ago.
Seeing the baby, Tudou grabbed him and triumphant planted in his new invention. Kanagasingam, standing a couple of seconds with uncomprehending views in the middle of the arena, moved in one direction, then turned and realized that he was trapped. The next moment the child in horror was weeping that are not often seen in his tribe".
Seeing the reaction of the son, Indian, without hesitation, destroyed the arena. The invention, useful from the point of view of economy of time (the child is limited in space, by mother's hands are free and it can deal with the economy) was identified as harmful and traumatic - and therefore unnecessary.
Perhaps because of this attitude traditional tribes turned out to be much more developed emotionally, but technically undeveloped - in contrast to us?... In these primitive tribes there are many things that the people of the Western world can only dream of: Liedloff tells about the feeling of serene happiness that emit CWANA and diamond talks about the remarkable openness of the natives of New Guinea. But there is something that shocked would be European or American: for example, the tradition of infanticide (infanticide) or habit to get rid of the old.
In General, older people in traditional communities are valued because they have invaluable experience accumulated during the long years of life. But not when the tribe must roam. Young and healthy members of the tribe are weapons, belongings and children, and therefore those older people who are unable to move independently, be a burden, says diamond. In some tribes of old people do ask that they were killed, others deal with them without talking, or choose a more gentle way: throw at the place of the former settlements with a minimum amount of food and water. It is not difficult to imagine what happens when these stocks are coming to an end.
Infanticide is still prevalent in many regions. In a society where the lack of food is a common thing with dependants, the conversation short. In case of birth of a handicapped child who is unable to support themselves as adults, parents will not expend energy to care. To solve it, it's great if her child and whether he should live, is considered to be the prerogative of the mother.
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