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Самые амбициозные частные космические проекты года2012 became a turning point for world space exploration. The company, Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX), owned by its founder PayPalЭлону Mask (Elon Musk), after a successful test startocaster the first ever commercial launch of private vehicle to the ISS. The launch vehicle Falcon 9s apparatus Dragonдоставила on-orbit complex of a total of about 400 kg of cargo, returning to Earth about 760 kg of waste equipment and research materials. Ahead of SpaceX eleven more runs Dragon 1.6-billion-dollar contract with NASA.

The prospect of making a successful business on the development of hitherto not available to private traders earth and outer space was so tempting that the projects began to appear one after the other. The most daring and original transferred Wired magazine.

Golden Spike - turpreti to the moon

Just a few weeks ago the world had heard of the company Golden Spike, who declared the era of "commercial moon". By the end of the decade, the company expects to organize the delivery of humans on the natural satellite of the planet. Model of the Golden Spike is this: for some 1,4-1,5 billion dollars the company using the existing missiles intends to send (of course, return to the moon, the crew of two people. It is assumed that the tours will interest not only the rich, but some States wishing to set your flag on the moon for the "prestige of the nation."

Theoretical chances of success at the Golden Spike is. Suffice it to say that the team includes Alan stern, a leading expert missions, New Horizons, and Gerry Griffin, who led the preparation and conduct of several flights of "Apollo". In practice, however, experts believe, will have difficulties. The main obstacle is money the company will have to somehow find at least several billion dollars on initial organization launches, development of the lunar module, etc. Besides, it would take at least five or six potential customers tours to achieve profitability. Finally, the question of "national prestige" flight to the moon, which raises Golden Spike, may not have the best impact on business models.

A realistic assessment of the project, according to Wired, is six points out of ten.

Planetary Resources - minerals from space

A much more ambitious project company Planetary Resources, which intends to extract minerals from the subsoil of asteroids. We are talking first of all about platinum, iridia and radii (see details here). It is assumed that huge stocks of these resources on such cosmic bodies will more than cover all expenses on sending of the research probes, actually resource extraction and delivery of them to the Ground. In the coming years Planetary Resources expects to run from two to five telescopes to space-based Arkyd-101 that identify the most suitable for development of an asteroid. However, until the main phase of the project so far: first it is scheduled for 30 years.

But no matter how long were no plans Planetary Resources, they cause many questions. In addition to technical base, which will require huge investments, long-design and innovative solutions have to consider the safety of shipping resources on Land and legal aspects. The fact that there Dogovora principles governing the activities of States in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies. He zapredelnoe the country to own a celestial body, but does not specify whether to do it by someone else. In short, it is not clear whether the Planetary Resources the right to privately develop asteroids and who should (and whether) to pay taxes.

In implementing our plans, however, Planetary Resources can help thick wallets her associates. A co-founder of the company is Eric Anderson, the founder of Space Adventures. In undertaking believe CEO GoogleЛарри page, film Director, screenwriter and producer James Cameron, as well as the founder of the Fund X PrizeПитер^. In any case, Planetary Resources enough time to try to solve the main technical and legal issues and to agree on funding.

Assessment of realism to seven points.

The telescope Sentinel space guardian of the Earth

In the summer of private B612 Foundation (named for the designation of the asteroid Little Prince - the main character of the product of Antoine de Saint-Exupery) began the search for investors for the project Sentinel for launching space telescope. The main task of the staff is to find asteroids that pose a potential danger for the Earth.

It is assumed that the infrared telescope Sentinel, revolving around the Sun (orbital close to Venus), can otslezhivat 90% of space objects larger than 140 meters in diameter that can come close to the Earth. Data collected by the system, in theory, will allow to identify dangerous objects for 50-100 years to conventional clashes. In addition, information will be useful when planning various research missions.

Start Sentinel scheduled for 2017-2018 years. Send telescope can be done with the help of the already mentioned Falcon rocket kompanii SpaceX. The device is designed for at least five and a half years; the collected data will be publicly available. Obviously, that's all about money: estimated amount equal to several hundred million dollars".

Assessment of realism to seven points.

Mars One - ticket to the Red planet in one end

While NASA is designing new Martian robots and ezuchevskogo implementation of a manned flight to the Red planet in the 2030s, private Dutch company Mars has Pesonals to start construction there of this colony already in 2023!

Kontseptsioonide to the next. Every two years using existing means of delivery (or those that will appear) on Mars will be sent to permanent residence (Yes, without possibility of return) of a team of four brave souls. For maintaining their activity is proposed to use mainly solar energy, as well as local resources, in particular water received by peretaplivanie ice, and oxygen, selected as a result of electrolysis (apparently, all the energy consumption is very well calculated).

The theoretical model is again not without missiles SpaceX. But what in practice? The idea looks, to put it mildly, doubtful. Even if to abstract from the issues of search for candidates on the "trip" in one end, survival and technical implementation, remains commonplace item "Money". Although Mars One evaluates the original mission of $9 billion, in fact, the program will likely require a trillion dollars of investments.

Assessment of realism two points.

Falcon Heavy is the most powerful booster of modernity

In the second half of 2013 may be the first test launch of Falcon Heavy, media development SpaceX. Structurally Falcon is a Heavy Falcon 9 with two detachable side accelerating speed. Length PH was 69.2 m, weight - 1 400 so Thanks 27 modernized liquid engines Merlin 1C (nine in accelerators and Central level) develops start craving 17 MN. Even with the failure of several of LPRE media will be able to continue the flight.

Falcon Heavy will become the most powerful booster of modernity. She can withdraw at low reference orbit to 54 tonnes of cargo; shipping cost will be approximately $2.2-2.3 million per tonne ($120 million when fully loaded). For comparison: the rocket United Launch Alliance Deltaберет about 23 tons of cargo, and the price of delivery exceeds $13 million per tonne.

To use Falcon Heavy intend military, NASA and private companies - for example, the already mentioned Golden Spike and Mars One. SpaceX already zakljuchitelny a contract on the launch of the Falcon Heavy: it will geosynchronous transfer orbit one of the satellites of Intelsat.

Assessment of realism - nine points.

Google Lunar X-Prize - private robot on the moon

In 2007 started the contest Google Lunar X-Prize: participants are asked to send a satellite of the drone. The robot has to make a successful landing and overcome on the lunar surface a few hundred meters, transmitting to Earth video, panoramic images of high quality and related information. The winner of the contest will receive $20 million

Initially, the end date of the contest was called 2012, however, the preparation of the teams has become clear that in these terms, no one fits. As a result, the deadline was postponed to the end of 2015. And though now in the list of nominees for the prize znachitsya 20 teams, real chances, perhaps, the only two - Barcelona Moon Teami Astrobotic. But they may encounter technical difficulties, lack of financing and other problems.

Assessment of realistic three points.

Virgin Galactic space tour operator

The company Virgin Galactic, owned by sir Richard Branson, 's profilerelease test vehicle SpaceShipTwoс engines operating. This will be followed by another series of tests, and then will come the moment in history - the era of private space tourism. For $200 thousand Virgin Galactic of ObedAET to deliver passengers to a height of 100 km, where for a short time to feel weightlessness.

It is assumed that the first flights will take place in 2013, however, believe that not all. Experts say that Virgin Galactic is a need to ensure the greatest possible safety. After all, the only disaster instantly cooled the ardour of extreme tourism: who wants to pay a lot of money for the journey to the other world? Moreover, the accident with casualties will raise questions about the need to introduce more stringent control over private space carriers and adoption of new laws. However, be that as it may, the desire to travel on SpaceShipTwo expressed about 560 people.

A realistic assessment of the implementation of the project in 2013 - five points.

Prepared according to Wired.
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