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ВСЕ ТАЙНЫ ГРААЛЯIf you want to understand what is the Grail, more precisely, under the Grail meant a thousand years ago, there is nothing more sense than to look in the era of the Grail. That is what we shall do.

As a matter of myth is, in some way, a different structure than scientific research, the precise instructions. Or perhaps? It really depends on how we are going to read in the ancient texts. And that we, in fact, of them subtract. Indeed, the tale of the hints stands up remarkably far from us life, with its geography, politics and religion.

We walk the paths of memory and see where it come to us of the Grail legend.

So, what is the Grail? Where did come to us for information about Grail and why he is Holy? In General, all our information about the Grail was gleaned from medieval chivalry. Starting with the first of them - "Percival" Chretien de Troyes - and then walked around the globe legend of the Grail. That is, as it is paradoxical sounds, lived in the XII century popular author de Troyes, who used some one he led legends to create an adventure novel for the then public.

How, in fact, called it the Holy Grail? What and where? Both questions are important, and we will try each of them to answer.

But before turning to the text of Chretien de Troyes, I must say a little about the main hero of this epic event. Call it Percival, he is still a boy and lives with her mother in the wilderness, knowing neither others nor the other world. His whole world is closed on the house, the mother, the servants. You can say, Percival was a child, brought up in a strict) isolation and are therefore in extreme ignorant about anything he did not see and do not know. That is, it is essentially a tabula rasa, a clean sheet", an innocent soul. And as every child, not further educational process, Percival is growing among thick forests as grass, remaining in ignorance, even purely mandatory in that era of the object of faith. Or more specifically, the dogmas of the faith. Because he brought up with great love, not knowing prohibitions, this kind of boy-Adam living in the Paradise of the garden of Eden. Of the few known books he knows about God and angels, but does not have the slightest idea about any evil. Simply because of the evil he had not seen, therefore, to distinguish good from evil cannot.

And then one day in this Paradise puts some riders, looking at that, our inexperienced hero comes to the conclusion that it was the angels. With eyes in police our hero falls on his knees with one question he asks the commander of this equestrian patrol: "You probably God?" What causes healthy laughter in other people's riders. However, it turns out, did it not God with His angels, and ordinary knights. The same, from the acquaintance with whom and wanted to isolate his mother, who lost to various wars and her husband, and the rest of the boys - older brothers Percival. Would be better if unhappy woman chose a different method of education, not isolation, because now, having got acquainted with the knights and getting minimal information about knights ' code of conduct, Percival aware of what happiness he was deprived of all these years. Freedom, his cloak billowing in the wind, fastest horse, the sword, shield, war - all this became his ideal, which eclipsed the angels and God. From this moment our hero was gone: he goes on a journey from which it cannot hold any mother love or fear of the unknown. He saw the fulfillment of the dream - knight, like an angel. So he throws the house and desperate mother starts his journey.

Chretien de Troyes, not finished the story and leaves his hero in search of adventure. However, on the very first adventure Percival we still know.

Percival leaves home, located in the forest. Before leaving, he interrogates with reconciled to the trouble mother, what should you do to become a knight, and not even just a knight, and one of the knights of king Arthur (what, actually, and was greeted them strangers!). So we have poor woman is to explain, as it is necessary to behave to the boy its origin in the world outside isolation - that is, as it is necessary to listen and answer questions, how to behave in society, men and ladies ' society, as well as put believe in this incomprehensible outside world. Naturally, instructions, which are not connected with practice and experience, any value have no. That is why our Percival always ends up in a situation where it would be necessary to act from the heart and where it acts on "the instructions of the mother," that is wrong.

B Russian tradition, there are several tales, where the hero is as inexperienced or deprived of the ability to associate an action (or word) and its consequences, and why he eventually turns out to be ridiculed or even broken. That's our Percival exactly in the same position! Starting his journey, he looks into the tent for a beautiful girl and strictly follows the parent Council (from the "how to behave with a beautiful lady" is to get a kiss and to take the memory of any object, which will give him the right to protect the marked lady). He kisses a stranger and takes her ring, and lays the first stone in the building of errors.

Leaving the poor alone with a jealous lover, he keeps on going, to the court of king Arthur. But, having arrived to this court, Percival, of course, is in an awkward position. All over him poke fun at, and the king decides to hold the boy in the yard, so that a little more accustomed, and has earned the honor of dedication to the knights. Only our hero does not want to wait, and to endure ridicule could not, so he's leaving the Palace, having heard, though one not the knight in red stole from the castle Cup, and whoever this Cup he takes and puts back, will become a knight! Percival decides that he must fight the thief, and he actually meets this red knight and needs to give him the Cup, and armor. Knight, much more experienced, don't take the boy seriously (because that is not even real weapons!); this is his ruin. Absolutely untrained military art Percival just sticks him with a dart straight in the eye. After which he vainly trying to get off the armor from the dead knight, dragging him along, till they met the squire of Artenova castle, which helps him to solve the problem. So we have to explain to the young winner, how to remove and put on the armor, but to all entreaties to go back to the court of our ignoramus refuses even defeating the enemy, he is afraid of ridicule of the Seneschal, who wrote in his enemies. That's exactly what he says discouraged armour-bearer: "come Back when Kai (his abuser. - Auth.) ask forgiveness for ridicule".

So Percival and went away, trying to get away. Fortunately, Percival, in his way is another castle, which owner, the old knight, takes Percival itself in pupils. But, learning to handle weapons and received an honorary knighthood, our hero immediately leaves hospitable castle. He longs knightly deeds. Is it not because of them he once left his home?!

The next castle, which falls Percival, is in trouble. His mistress, the young lady Blanchflor (FR. - white Lily), besieged by the Seneschal of his cruel fan, and Percival decides to save her and save the castle from the siege. First, he fights with the Seneschal and overcomes him, then with a fan of the ladies. Both defeated Percival as captives sends to the court of king Arthur. But instead of staying with a lovely Blanchflor, he remembers about his mother and now struggles to return home, to prove that he became an adult, and at the same time to see how it works.

Immediately forgetting Blanchflor, he rushes to his home, but only get to the river. River - alas - deep, and a fishing boat can't move to the other side of the knight and his horse. Once in the twilight without hope of crossing or overnight, Percival asked the fisherman, unknown cast some haven where you can spend the night. The fisherman replied that the Percival not do one overnight stay, I invited him into his home, the road to which here and explains: the path to the house is along the path, lost in the rocks. From the top it is perfectly visible. Percival climbs the narrow path to the top, however, sees nothing - only earth and sky, and he begins to suspect the old man of deceit. But, having looked closely, Percival suddenly sees a tower. This is precisely one of the towers of hidden castle, which houses the Holy Grail!

Castle Grail, by Chretien de Troyes, consists of three towers and adjacent buildings. The towers are of a square and built of grey stone. Having given thanks to the fate and sent him here fisherman, Percival let the horse in the valley and rode down to the bridge. After passing over the bridge, he is in the yard of the castle, where they immediately start servants. Two help him down from the horse and take armor and weapons, the third lead the horse to the stable, fourth places on him a scarlet robe, and then all four of them escorted the young man in his half of the chambers. After some time they come with two servants, and accompany in square hall. Through the halls is set a bed, on which sits a gray-haired and good-looking man in sable hat, black color Atlas of mulberry berries, and in the same color dress: This man calls went to him and ordered him to sit down, and then begins to inquire about the journey. Percival answers questions, and at this moment is the servant and brings the sword. The host puts forward a little sword from its sheath, and our ghero sees the mark on the sword, knowing that it is expensive and very good sword. Here the servant says that this sword was sent niece of the host, which hoped that such a great long and broad sword will fall into good hands, because this is the last work of a great master, and the one for all my life forged only three such sword. For some reason the owner immediately decides what Percival is the most worthy, and hands him the sword.

Judging by the description of the sword, he Byzantine and Arabic works - at least, its hilt made from Eastern gold, but the sheath is decorated with Venetian ligature. Having caught the sword, tasted and felt his power, Percival immediately passes it to the servant, who had previously handed weapons, and sits next to the host, enjoying the conversation. From the walls of the shed bright light, Percival cozy and quiet.

Here the corner of his eye he noticed that the hall is the servant who holds for the middle of the shaft white spear. He passes directly between the fireplace and sitting closer to the warmth of the people. With the end of the spear falls blood, drop by drop. Crimson drops on a white tip. One of the drops rolled down into the hands of Percival. Percival understands that faced by some miracle, and he wants to ask what it was all about. But the old knight, who taught him to own a gun, at parting they said, what need to be polite and patient and not ask too many questions, and because Percival feels treated kindly in this house, he pretends that nothing has noticed. Spear away.

Following are two young squires with the candlesticks of scarlet gold in hand, each illuminated by 10 candles. Behind them walks a beautiful young maiden with Grail in his hands. Chretien de Troyes more says nothing about the Grail, only specifies that when the virgin entered the hall, the Grail came clean and bright lights that light the candle faded instantly, and was the Grail made of pure gold and richly decorated with precious stones. The Grail was passed by Percival, as the spear, but, although he very much wanted to find out who is the Holy Grail, he didn't say anything, again following the advice of the old knight.

Because a required set of questions was not, servants bring towels and water serves to prepare a guest for a meal. Two young men set a carved bone buffet, which also affects Percival, for he sees that it is made from a solid piece. Two servants make a couple goat of ebony, which is placed on the tabletop.

The buffet serves a rich white tablecloth, then served was blue. First there is a deer leg with spices, various sweet wines in gold cups, toasted slices of bread, and all are well served. During the meal before you Went on again, carrying the Grail, and the Chretien de Troyes already mentions it as the Cup: Percival wondered who drinks from this wonderful Cup, but again does not dare to ask. Curiosity torments him stronger and stronger, but trying to show himself a man mannered, Percival overcomes himself, hoping later to ask about Grail servants. So far he just enjoys food and wine. Dine, he once again holds a conversation with the owner, but a single question about the spear and the Grail is not out of his mouth. The servants bring extraordinary overseas fruit, which our hero had never seen, and on top of that gluttony - Golden Alexandria honey, ginger, sweet wine Eastern origin. Finally, realizing that the young man about anything and will not ask the owner asks him to go to sleep: he complains that it feels feet, so it will take bedchamber servants, and the boy offers to lie down in his quarters, or remain in the hall. Percival remains in the hall.

Owner's claim on the sheet as on a stretcher. Servants undress Percival, and stack it serves a white linen cloth. He falls asleep. In the morning, but not too early, he wakes up and sees that there is nobody. Percival tries to call the servants, but none of them answered. He wants to go to the owner in the adjacent rooms, but all the doors locked.

According to the Chretien de Troyes, nigricollis plenty, Percival forced to dress up yourself. Their clothes and armour he finds lying on the table. When he goes out in the yard, the court yard is empty, but to the wall and leaned his weapon and shield. Drawbridge pubescent. Percival decides that servant went out into the woods to check whether she reached prey to the snare, so he Sedlec horse and goes out of the yard hospitable castle. To himself he thinks that as soon as these servants will see immediately ask them about the spear, and about the Grail. But something makes him turn around, and, turning round, he suddenly sees that the bridge is raised again!

Knight Percival, making enormous jump, literally hangs in the air, trying to overcome the void beneath his feet. Percival, realizing that the bridge could not stand up by himself, crying out, but in vain, for no one shows up and does not respond to his call. Percival suddenly realize that I have done wrong: he had to ask, but never asked, and therefore, did not fulfill his duty! The owner of the castle, the king, and waited for him to help; not asking the right question at the right time, Percival had doomed him to suffering. All this Percival already understands, so to speak, in hindsight. Go back in time and change course he can't, we can only go forward, polijas to chance.

And this case does not have to wait long, because again confronts him with the unhappy lady (Blanchflor), which it accused of infidelity, and with the Seneschal, who he was ridiculed. Percival gets a chance to correct earlier mistakes: the lady he returns unfortunate ring, and against the Seneschal deftly knocks that out of the saddle.

When sycamore king Arthur he later meets a certain virgin that opens, more precisely, reveals to him the mystery of the Grail castle and the Grail. She reports: due to the fact that Percival had not asked the right question, the King-Fisher, owner of the castle, will suffer and will not be able to fully manage their lands, which will suffer the people: knights will die, ladies will lose their husbands, children, parents, and the earth will come to desolation. The reason for this - the wound that he received a fair fight, and from which Percival could deliver him, if asked the right question. Strange virgin requests by king Arthur, his knights came to the rescue lady Montclar, and almost at the same time came the messenger accuses his nephew Arthur of sir Havana in betrayal.

Knights go with Arthur to feats, Govan - to restore its reputation, and Percival makes a vow not to sleep twice under the same roof and do not fight with anyone in the fight until you reveal the secrets of the Grail and do not know the secrets of lance.

Percival wanders, and he was so lost in his search of the Grail that literally forgot about everything. From the words of Chretien de Troyes we know that there is 5 years. Percival for all these years, never even went to Church. We only know that, despite the promise not to fight, he captured 60 knights and all of them were sent to the court of king Arthur. And so couldn't he remember time and further, that is to live for only one purpose, if after these five years, he has not met acquaintances knights who accompanied dozen ladies went barefoot, making the pilgrimage. Knights quite surprised that Percival in such a day is armed. What Percival himself said, "well, what day it is?" It turned out - the eve of Easter, good Friday, that is, the day of the crucifixion of Christ!

Met Percival knight, hurt by the lack of a young man of piety, read him a lecture about the crucifixion of the Savior, but not aroused much interest. After hearing all this tirade, Percival only asked where the pilgrims go, and learned that from the Holy hermit, who directly communicate with God. There Percival, suddenly waking from the spleen, and hurried away. Near the dwelling of a hermit he took off his armor, weapons, tied the horse and humbly, weeping, came under the arches of the chapels. On the question of the hermit, than it's so sad, Percival said that he is guilty of a terrible sin. The confession he told hermit, that he'll stay one day in the castle of the King-Fisherman where he saw the strangest little things: the spear that was bleeding, and the Holy Grail, but decided not to ask who eating from the bowl and why bleeds spear. Since then, added the young man, he never turned to God and asked for His forgiveness, and he did not commit anything to it to earn the forgiveness.

Having heard such a strange story, the hermit asked the name of the young man. He called himself. And then the hermit sighed and told him what to ask the right question, he failed not because of doubts, but because of his departure from the house brought great harm: the mother went on, unable to hit her grief, as soon as he drove off, he fell down and died beside the bridge, where they parted. This act and did not allow the University to have the time to ask questions. And only a mother's prayer kept it all this time. The hermit also added that questions Percival he may answer: from the Grail was allowed to eat only to a few individuals, among them the brother of the hermit and the mother herself Percival, as well as King-Fisherman and his father. However, said the hermit, the Grail is not offering to eat pike, salmon, lamb or mutton, it contains the host (the host)that can sustain life in the body. The king-Fisher, in his words, for 12 years tasted nothing but the host of the Grail, other food, he became unnecessary. Because Percival - from the point of view of the Church, broke all imaginable and unimaginable rules, the hermit imposed a penance and explained how should he continue to do their duty of the believer. For two days the young man had to stay together with a hermit and to eat only bread and water.

Because Percival was not accustomed to pray, the hermit had taught him one correct prayer, in which "there were many of the names of Our Lord, including the greatest and most terrible that the human language should not say, except the fear of death!" The hermit this is particularly mentioned, and forbade him to use such a prayer, except in special cases, when it will be in extreme danger.

Our hero honestly stood two-day fasting, eating together with a hermit water and simple plant food, and then received Holy communion. At this point in history Percival finished, but now it is substituted with another hero - knight Govan who went, as you remember, to prove his innocence. And later in the book we are talking about his adventures. The Grail in the text also no longer appears.

The Chretien de Troyes Grail is ornate chalice, in which rests the host and which emits magic light, as marked by the highest grace of Heaven. Spear same exudes not just blood, and the blood of Jesus Christ! Both subjects together very much resemble elements of Holy communion: the host, giving divine saturation, in other words, the body of Christ, and sweet wine for the sacrament - the very blood of Christ. In the original recension any other Christian motives did not appear. All the rest is the product of a completely different time layers.
Sources of Chretien de Troyes

And now look, what legends were the basis of creation of Chretien de Troyes. No doubt he used Celtic legends, United in a single book of myths - "Mabinogion"and legends of king Arthur. Researchers who tried to find out how the Arthur is a historical personality, came to this conclusion: "In this way the impact of accidental contamination of the glorious deeds of two different Arturo that led to the emergence of a single half-real-mythical character, preserving, however, the features of both its predecessors.

One of them was clearly God by the name of Art, the worship of which was more or less common in the land of the Celts, is undoubtedly the most Arthur, whom the inscription ex veto discovered in the ruins on the South-East of France, mentions Mercurius Artios (Mercurius Artaius).

One quite earthly Arthur, chief, who wore a special title which, in the era of Roman rule was called komes, Britannia (Comec Britannae). This graph "Britain" performed the functions of the Supreme military leader. Its main task was to protect the country from possible invasions of foreigners. Thank Arthur, king teamed up with the glory Arthur-God, and General syncretic way is widespread on the lands that are already in our time had traces of ancient settlements of the Britons in the UK. This has created the basis for numerous discussions on the location of "Arturovich possessions", and also cities such as legendary Camelot, and loci 12 famous battles Arthur".

In other words, it is a real historical person - tribal leader Arthur, or, in another reading, Ursus (Bear), who lived in the real Britain, bought posthumously divine history (that is, to him, was assigned a number of previously existing legends, changed or redefined).

What fate the hero of this legend was interested contemporaries Chretien, a fact established and well known. It is reported in several British Chronicles. Naturally, contemporaries Chretien did not live with the real Arthur at the same time, their share several centuries, but in the English monastery of glastonberry was opened tomb of king Arthur, as there is a corresponding entry, with surveys graves can be regarded as almost the first archaeological research in the Middle ages. It glastonberry and has become the most recognized candidate for the title of king Arthur's castle is his avalon. In this castle, as you remember, and coming young Percival.

Well this place is glastonberry? The name means "the glass island", or "glass mountain", or "glass castle" - from Glos - glass and take - city fortress. Earlier, before the conquest of glastonberry by the Saxons, the place was called in the language of the Britons INIS Gutrin, which means "the glass island", that is, the translation was literal.

It is believed that before INIS Gutrin, (INIS Vetrin) was called INIS avalon, meaning "island of apples" (INIS - island Aval - Apple). According to the legend, at avalon Arthur was sent by his cousin fairy Morgana, where, in a quiet and safe environment has he been able to heal their wounds. The place was really quiet - it was located in the middle of swamps, indeed, exactly on the island. When our time has come, glastonberry visited archaeological party, opened, that in this place and in ancient times was a settlement, and 15 miles on the plateau they found and the ancient town. Now this place is called Cadbury castle. "To the testimony of J.. The Leland, " according to the historians, local residents, whom he interviewed in 1542, called this plateau Camelot and claimed that it stood the castle of king Arthur, and Arthur was immersed in deep sleep, resting in a cave under a nearby hill. Winter nights can be seen swirling across the plateau Ghost host". But what has forced the monks to start digging? Not only as an indication of king Henry? No, of course. In 1184 Abbey has undergone a strong fire, was destroyed most part of the buildings, the fire consumed and relics. So when wet autumn due to the continuous rains crumbled to the ground and stripped sidewall two large oak coffins, the monks took this news as a direct disposal of Heaven: dig! Having opened the grave, they found several bodies with memorable tin cross. This was the grave of Arthur.
Time Grail

But why the interest in Celtic mythology and legendary king Arthur appears at the end of the XII century, during the time when he made the Chretien de Troyes? And what we know about this poet? What are the secrets of the Grail that the Chretien is being written with a small letter? What symbolizes the spear? Why heroes selected young knight? Where events occur that? Why she never got finished? As Chretien was going to finish? What secrets to tell?

Much we do not know and never know, and can only guess, or speculate. But here's the question, why is this a novel about the Grail appears in. the second half of the XII century, the answer is easy. As a matter of fact, it is not difficult to explain why the hero becomes a knight, not a monk or a king. In 1095 happened one important event, which immediately raised European chivalry to its highest pitch, - the era of the Crusades.

In the summer of 1099, they took Jerusalem. And in the hands of the crusaders got the life-giving Cross. Another relic was mentioned already spear. Moreover, although there were people who doubted its origin, there were some who were ready to perish, proving the sanctity of this artifact. Marseille cleric (according to other sources - Provence peasant party campaign and that the alleged "monk", which appeared in a dream to Saint Andrew) Peter Bartholomew, offended by the lack of faith in the sanctity of the spear, even went for him through the fire.

Medieval chronicler has left such a record of such a memorable event: "Peter Bartholomew, full of indignation, said as simple man who knew the truth: "I wish and pray that had kindled a large fire; I'll go through it together with the Lord's Spear. If this Spear of the Lord, that I will be safe and sound; if it is a hoax, then I will burn..." This happened on the eve of Friday, that is Passionate in April 1099 year, at the siege Arch... Princes, and the people gathered in the number of 40 thousand... From dried olive made a fire in 14 feet long... and the height heaps reached 4 feet... Without the slightest fear, steady stepped into the fire, carrying a spear; on the famous place in the midst of the flames he stopped and walked with God's help to end... tunic does not burned, and there was not the slightest trace of fire on the delicate matter, in which the Lord was wrapped Spear... the people were fastened upon him -- He was wounded in three or four places feet, snatching bits of meat broke spinal bone and ruined it..."

However, after this act of self-sacrifice unfortunate hardly managed to repulse from the enthusiastic crowd: his body wanted to dismantle the Holy relics, and some of the most brave knights rushed him to save. However, it is not saved: he soon died from a terrible wounds and not less extensive burns. It is believed that this spear a century later brought to Paris Saint Louis.

Since Chretien de Troyes wrote his novel in verse after the start of the Crusades, their romance could it not be reflected. She reflected. The knight is the sacred word, it is a hero. And as stalinym hardships of war crusaders was a vision, the same vision attend and young Percival. Knights he sees only an aura of sanctity. Angels! So exclaims Percival first seeing the horse soldiers of king Arthur. "Angels we are!" - so cried real knights, following the heavenly visions, or the life-giving Cross, sun-parched Palestine, exhausted, and blinded unbearable southern light. And after the Holy army was engaged in battle with the Saracens. We now difficult to understand what led these people to fight, we live in another time and, unfortunately, don't believe anything. The writing of the story of Grail - the last decades of the XII century. Palestine was conquered and divided between noble singorama, success and failures vary periodically, on the historical scene is burning bright and dangerous star of Saladdin.

How much would the researchers nor denied that Chretien de Troyes portraits of the knights Templar, the truth is that other portraits he just couldn't write. And here's why. It is no coincidence that the poet has the name of Chretien de Troyes, literally, it means Chretien of Troyes. And the name of this town is connected with the Templars tightly. It was here in 1128, and was officially recognized that rebellious Order. Besides Troyes is the land of the counts of Champagne, and all the citizens andC that in the beginning of the Order in its founders came Hugo de champagne, the knights ' Charter became the Templars. For this interesting document membership in the order of one knight automatically made knights and all his descendants. We do not know whether he Chretien Templar and if he was a knight at all, but that people who ordered him the story of the Grail, could not be the Templars, is undeniable.

Should probably pay attention to the fact that the Chretien amazingly good command of the geography of Palestine and the UK, well versed in Northern mythology, uses the terms of theology and philosophy, history, literature (translated Ovid!), that is, he is an educated and erudite. And an idealist. Of course, the Chretien de Troyes do not look for "secrets of the Grail" in that sense, later, which is widely accepted today. We should rather speak about the secret symbols of the novel "Percival"because delicate shell of this text is visible sophisticated mind game. All who subsequently will continue the work of Chretien, or use the text as a basis for your own creations will be to resort to this symbolism. But de Trois was the first who tried to rethink myth and who put on the myth image of contemporary reality. So it makes sense to track some secret characters (for us - secret, but quite transparent to the people of the XII century), so you do not ask the wrong questions (as you remember from "Percival"meaning only has correctly and in time the question).
Lame king

So, the mystery, which puts a modern man in an impasse: how suffers injury king and that it should heal. Our young hero Percival this question greatly tormented, because in his unasked question he sees the reason for the continuation of the suffering of the king. But why is this injury is associated with unasked question? And what the character of the injury? Because virgin accuses our hero as much, and the troubles that because of the stupidity of a knight must fall on the king of the earth. How is the disease of the king may be connected with the troubles of the Kingdom?

To answer this question we need to know Celtic legends. In them we find the answer in the painful riddle. For Celtic (druid) the laws of physical deformity or heavy wound with the loss of body parts were deprived of the king of the right to occupy the high post. It is lost in battle hand, although managed to make its silver counterpart, makes Noida powerless, that is, after the loss of his hand, he cannot manage their lands, so you need a new leader - a healthy, so to speak bodily whole. This ancient belief coming from the bottom of our history, when it was believed that the patient Lord makes maimed and their country. And there are many legends about how those leaders were expelled, and in their place put healthy. In this regard, unasked question Percival is a refusal of justice.

As we know, the wound inflicted by the spear that is the cause of misery (open wound). And at the same time, this spear oozes blood, one drop falls to the hero's arm, making him an accomplice. We do not see the wound, but we can see the blood of the wound - red on white, that symbolizes Holiness and purity coupled with the power of love. It is these qualities that have to do everything as it was: that is, to heal the wound, cleaned what was desecrated. Unhappiness, which will be subject to the land of the king of silence went on, - it is related to the desecration. The desecration reflected in legends and is called the "injury" or "empty land".

According to one legend, the king broke given to him Geis (it's quite strange Celtic ban, imposed on the person, although he may not even be aware that the ban imposed and followed the steps that had no right to do. Because of this, the whole of his country and himself was induced witchcraft (Kara gods: three days not a single man will not be able to take up arms and repel the attack of the enemy, the enemy will come and I will lay waste the land, would kill the inhabitants, but men will lie, experiencing terrible pain. Famous Irish hero Cuchulain reflects the attacks of the enemy at that time, as the king and the nobles of the Kingdom writhe in pain.

But how and why did the Chretien thought to provide hero incurable wound? Here there should not apply to a myth and history, and if to be more exact, to the history of the Crusades.

In 1098 during one of random, not war, events in the Holy land severe wound in the thigh received a future ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem godefroid Boulogne. On some of the soldiers was attacked by a bear, and godefroid grappled with dangerous animal. The bear he killed, but the wound was terrible, he probably completely from her and could not recover because in 1100, being the protector of Jerusalem, felt bad during one of his campaigns and died. Note that the cause of the wound was the bear, that is, "Arthur", "art". This story is connected with the bear, that is with "Arthur", in the real world. Percival wanted to serve the king Arthur, but left his court. This game of Association, and the Chretien - master in such games. It is also important that "the king received his wound in fair fight," that is, the wound is not a punishment for sin or cowardice, it is the mark of a hero, and need another hero who has enough power of the heart, that is love. If you remember the motto of the knights Templar, he sounded so: "long live God's Holy Love." Inexperience does not remove the guilt, as ignorance of the gace does not justify the intruder. Inexperience is treated only with time and suffering, what is happening to Percival. But who Percival!?

We know who he is the boy will believe in the ideals of the knights and relate them with the angelic choir, only with swords. On his white shield red cross. Do not think that this shield with this cross automatically make him a Templar. Knight of his Christ makes rather attitude to the world, because at the end of the XII century, undoubtedly, the Templars were the best soldiers and was considered "heaven knights". Bernard of Clairvaux wrote about this new army: "Knight of Christ, I say, can strike with confidence and die with confidence even more, for, putting blow, serves Christ, and dying - is yourself. It is not for nothing has the sword: he's God's servant, ostial in punishment doeth evil, and to the praise of the good. If he kills zlocina, it becomes a murderer, and, if I may say so, a destroyer of evil. It is obvious that he is ostial Christ villains and is considered to be the protector of Christians. If the same'll kill him, you know he not died, and went to the Harbor. When he causes death, it is to the benefit of Christ, when death is caused to him, it is he himself good. A Christian is glorified in the death of a Gentile, because Christ is glorified; the death of a Christian is the case for the King to show their generosity, awarding Her knight. In one case, the righteous will rejoice that happened but in another'll tell the people: "Verily there is a reward for the righteous; verily, God is the judge of all the earth". That is, in fact, the Templars for Bernard sinless. Although bring death, because their hand is the continuation of the right hand of God.

Our hero too inexperienced sinless, even though makes mistakes, but he does it with a pure heart, sincerely, not wanting to bring evil. It just seems that he is doing the right thing, as they explained to him what is right and what is not, only he doesn't understand and confused. Can do justice to approve the rivers of blood? Bernard believed that if this is done with a pure heart, open the voice of God, then it is possible. The Chretien - hardly. Percival same and does not counted; when it is a child of nature began to reason, it has lost peace and lost God, that is, any another's misfortune, the young man began to see as a result of their own mistakes, which provoked his God.

Which is better? To sin anymore, thinking that you always clean and rights? Or assume that all your actions and thoughts lead to sin? Obviously, this idea after more than half a century Crusades was relevant. The ideal was dripping bloody spots. Red cross on a white shield was bleeding as stigmata.

Output, which Chretien gave their hero, is to learn to forgive myself honest mistakes, repent of them and no longer have feelings of guilt. For without the return of purity impossible to move forward. But ahead in this case - on the way to the Holy Grail. Actually, from the perspective of Chretien Percival's not quite the hero, for its time, the ideal of the knight looked different. "The sun just knighthood, " writes Michel Pasture, is considered

Gowen, the nephew of king Arthur, one of the participants of the Round table, who had all necessary for knight qualities - honesty, kindness and generosity of the heart; piety and moderation; courage and physical strength; contempt for fatigue, suffering and death; the consciousness of dignity; the pride of belonging to a noble race; true serving Seigneur, compliance promised fidelity; and, finally, virtues, old-French-called "largesse" ("generosity of spirit") and "courtoisie" ("kurtuaznoy, refinement, delicacy, sophistication"). In full it still may not transfer any term of modern language.

The concept of "largesse" included generosity, generosity and extravagance at the same time. It is supposed wealth. The opposite of this quality - avarice and search benefits, characteristic features of the merchants and townspeople, which Chretien is invariably in a ridiculous light. In a society where the majority of the knights lived very poorly and that those means, which favored to their patrons, literature, naturally, praised gifts, expenses, wastefulness and the manifestation of luxury.

The concept of "courtoisie" even more difficult to define. It includes all of the above qualities, but adds to them physical beauty, elegance and the desire to please; kindness and timeless soul, refinement of the heart and manners; a sense of humor, mind, exquisite politeness, in short, a certain snobbery. Among other things, it involves youth, lack of attachment to life, the thirst battles and pleasure, adventure and idleness. Its opposite is the meanness and treachery, magicofaloe (vilainie) - lack of inherent villanen, Moilanen, people of low origin and especially ill-mannered. As for kurtuaznoy one of noble birth was considered insufficient, the natural data should be improved by the special education and improve myself everyday practice at the court influential superior. In this respect the court of king Arthur seemed exemplary. There was the most beautiful ladies, the most valiant knights, reigned the most courtly manners." In other words, Percival does not correspond to the ideals of his epoch, he was a child in the search.

In some texts, for instance in the Epistle of Clement of Alexandria Theodore, indicated that the teachings of Christ and Christianity in the Roman form in which it was presented, that is arranged Paul and his followers, it is not true: "Now, as to their constant reasonings about the God-inspired Mark, part of it is a total lie, and if there are elements of truth, wrong pass. The truth mixed with falsehood, it becomes false, as they say, even the salt becomes tasteless.

As for Marc, he during your stay Peter's in Rome recorded all acts of the Lord. But, in reality, he did not declare all acts and not hinted at a secret, but I chose the ones that he found it most useful for the growth of the catechumens in the faith. And when Peter died a Martyr, mark went to Alexandria, taking account, his and Peter. From these records, he suffered in his original book the parts that contributed to the growth of knowledge. Thus, he was more than a spiritual gospel for advanced toward perfection. But he did not disclose what must not be uttered in vain, and has not recorded europeniscola the teachings of the Lord, and only added to the previously recorded deeds of others. He also added some sayings, the interpretation of which, he knew, will be built by students at the sanctuary of truth, for the seven veils. So in the end he prepared all without envy, as I believe, and the rush and after his death left his work of the Church in Alexandria, where he is now very securely stored, read only those who are ordained great sacrament."

This implies a completely naive question: and what were the sacraments? And the original doctrine differs from the mass of Christian propaganda? If the text to believe (and there is no sense not to believe him - were. Teaching for the people - it was all at a glance. But behind that facade lived another doctrine, not designed for laymen (i.e. people ignorant). And to know the true teachings... it was required initiation.

Because the purpose of the knights is to chase and destroy evil people, and since no one is exposed to many dangers, as knights, can you imagine something more needed to knight than wisdom? The ability of a knight to win in tournaments and on the battlefields are not so closely connected with the knight's purpose as the ability to think sensibly, to reason and to manage their own will, for through the mind and the calculation was won more battles than through the crowd of people, ammunition or knightly prowess. It follows that as long as this is so, then if you, knight, intends to prepare my son for the knights of the field, you should teach him to think and to reason, that he loved the good and hate the evil.

"Courage is a virtue, not allowing to penetrate into the noble heart of the Crusader seven deadly sins that straight road leads to the eternal torments of hell and which are the following: gluttony, lust, greed, sadness, pride, envy, anger. So the knight, burdened with sins, not to get in the place that spiritual nobility chose his patrimony" (Raymond Lully. The book about the knightly order).

The grace of the Holy Grail comes only on those who may perceive it. Are there many worthy in our day? Let's hope that they will reveal the secret of the Grail.
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