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Как создается ЛегендаAs soon as the Legend arose, and came to a certain circle of readers, it begins to spread on the type of infectious disease. Just as pathogenic viruses during epidemics spread faster than the effective power of vaccines, lies and hoaxes, enshrining the Legend, spread faster scientific facts, it denies. Comes to the paradox: for example, in Czechoslovakia the popularity of the Bermuda triangle contributed Illustrated encyclopedic dictionary of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. Of course, the term "Bermuda triangle" to include in the dictionary was necessary, but what is said about him in the definition is controversial. The dictionary States the following: "the Bermuda triangle is the name of the district in the Western part of the Atlantic ocean off the southeastern U.S. coast between Bermuda, Florida and Puerto Rico. The Bermuda triangle is known so far unexplained accidents and disappearances of ships and aircraft. The participants of the joint research program of 1978 established and recorded many protected optical phenomena, violations of terrestrial magnetism, water whirlwinds and whirling currents".

If the first part of the definition that specifies the classical boundaries of the Bermuda triangle, there is no objection, although we know that in many cases these boundaries are defined differently. Correspond to reality and that this area is known not explained until now disappearances of ships and aircraft. But unexplained disaster only means that the cause is unknown, in other words, the options may be few, the big question is which of them are valid. Such disasters and extinction known in all seas and oceans of the globe, and we have already proved that in the Bermuda triangle not more than in other places. But the second part of the definition takes the reader on a false path. The reaction to such a formulation might be: "How? Is a scientific study of the Bermuda triangle? Moreover, international? So, in these mysteries something is, if organize such large international expedition". But the fact of the matter is that no investigation of the mysteries of the Bermuda triangle was not conducted. Expedition to the area worked and work, but they explore the Gulf stream, and the interaction of the ocean and atmosphere. The dictionary is specified 1978, but at this time the research was conducted under the program of POLIMODA whose main purpose was to determine the influence of the Gulf stream to the weather. None of the dozens of collections, summarizing the results of studies regarding this program, there is no word about the Bermuda triangle. Thus, it is said in the Illustrated dictionary is a half-truth: studies are underway, but they have nothing to do with what is said about the Bermuda triangle, which only lucky in the fact that it is located in a place where there is a complex system of the Gulf stream that causes the continued interest in oceanographers, meteorologists and climatologists. More chaos in the minds of readers causes the end of the definition in the dictionary, which says that in the course of these studies were allegedly found numerous rare optical phenomena! In fact, anything that was beyond the scope of natural and understandable science phenomena was found. Were allegedly revealed violations of magnetism! We have said that those within the Bermuda triangle in General, there is only magnetic anomalies, such as those that occur in other areas of the ocean. Vortices and videobrass course there are, but they are caused by the fact that here is the Gulf stream, and also the fact that there are shallow waters and Straits, through which the tidal current.

The authors of popular science and science fiction like to refer to the scientific research results or on the official documents. But they will allow a little distortion of the text, something (which happens often), add or translated wrong. A perfect example of this practice is found in the book of L. Sou?ek "Premonition relationship. On pages 195 he writes about the existence of an official document, circular no. 5720, published by the US coast guard, which corresponds to reality. According to the interpretation Sou?ek, the document reads as follows: "Bermuda, or the devil's triangle - this is the area near the Atlantic coast, famous for the large number of cases of unexplained disappearances of ships, small boats, and aircraft. The vertices of a triangle are located in Bermuda, Miami (Florida) and San Juan (Puerto Rico)". And he proudly adds: "This is an official document!" But if we refer to the original, we will discover a small inaccuracy. But to be objective here is an excerpt from the document specified in the original language, i.e. English: "The Bermuda or Devil's Triangle is an imaginary area is located off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States, which is noted for a high incidence of unexplained losses of ships, small boats, and aircraft..." If you compare the original with "translation" L. Sou?ek, we find that he missed the most important word is imaginary. And it means "imaginary", "unreal", "imaginary". This one word completely changes the meaning of an official document. Why L. sou?ek did? Failed to properly translate the word imaginary? Of course not. Most likely, it does not fit into the concept. Or he believed in the existence of the mysterious forces of the Bermuda triangle or may not be believed, but wanted to believe the reader. As it was, in fact, we, unfortunately, to ask the author no longer can.

The following example from the same book "Premonition relationship is the statement that in the framework of the program POLIMODA investigated the Bermuda triangle. This question we have seen, but we emphasize again that in the research triangle is not mentioned at all. Completes this pyramid of fictions a statement that the study of the Bermuda triangle continues under the auspices of the UN. Of course, research in the area of the Atlantic ocean continues, including with the participation and support of the UN, but by the Bermuda triangle, they have nothing. A similar game in the scientific study of the Bermuda triangle could be compared with a message in the tabloid newspaper: "According to historical documents in the pond x area at lived water". For example, in 1978 would have begun studies of the pond, to study the quality of water in it. In the above mentioned newspaper on this issue would appear the following message: "In 1978 was organized by the international research pond x to confirm the presence of water". This fictional case is absurd, but it is equally absurd and history that the UN supports research Bermuda triangle.

Journalists write about "the dangerous area of the Atlantic". He is really dangerous, but not because there is some mysterious or supernatural forces. It is dangerous because is full of shallow waters, coral reefs, and also because there are raging winter summer storms and hurricanes, because there is the Gulf stream with its eddies.

The journalists of "send" in the Bermuda triangle Soviet research vessel "Vityaz" to explore its mysteries. In fact, the purpose of the expedition of the "Vityaz" was to study the energy balance of the Gulf stream and other issues of importance for long-term meteorological forecasts. The journalists of "send" in the area of the Atlantic are dozens of expeditions for the study are not disclosed still mysteries. Actually, research institutes send dozens of expeditions to survey the seabed, the water temperature and salinity, water mass movement and other interesting issues that need and it is useful to study.

Everything that happens in the Bermuda triangle, according to lovers exciting, seductive and mysterious, too mysterious. If the plane begins to vibrate under the influence of turbulence, they do that "pilots can't explain". Quickly falls pressure - "meteorologist helpless". Suddenly the storm begins again something "mysterious". In fact, the pilot can marvel at the intensity of turbulence, but it is nothing mysterious in it does not see, as well as the meteorologist - in pressure drop and the storm.

Another great evil is the distortion of the message or Declaration. I will give only one example. In the Saturday Supplement to the newspaper "Ore law" on 9 July 1983 published an article entitled "the Return of the Bermuda triangle", which was many times used the word "mysterious" and "unexplained". In addition, the head of the expedition, Professor A. A. Aksenov has attributed the following words: "there is still very much unclear. For example, "voice of the storm". Suddenly there is a sound that can cause the crew of collective insanity". Really serious scientist could say something similar? In the journal "Nature", he writes the following: "We read about the mysterious "voice of the storm", which is said to cause insanity people on Board. This problem has not been studied, but it could be relevant to the Bermuda triangle. It turns out that Professor A. A. Aksenov said something completely different than what he wrote in the newspaper.

Readers can easily be confusing reference to a famous author or mention any of the persons involved in this case. L. sou?ek, for example, convinces readers that in the Bermuda triangle really listenXia strange magnetic and light phenomena, because he had told the captains of ships and even had to read about these phenomena in ship logs. This wording seems convincing. As is known to the writer told about it experienced sea captain and writer myself read ship logs! But critically-minded reader will here questions arise: "What captains spoke with the writer? What ship belonged to the magazines, which he read?" We make bold to declare that undefined reference to some captains and some of ship logs evidence can not be. We can cite specific evidence, and if the captain " please. The captain of the Czechoslovak ocean cargo ship the Franek repeatedly that swam in the waters of the Bermuda triangle, the question had not happened to him if something mysterious, said, "No, I have not happened. Probably because mysterious forces shrink from meeting us. They obviously prefer court capitalist States." Captain research vessel GDR "Alexander von Humboldt" Ralph Diener said: "Unusually there is only one - unstable weather". Chief geologist known drilling ship with international crew "Glomar Challenger" after returning from an expedition to the Bahamas Straits, that is, in the centre of the Bermuda triangle, said: "the fact that we were in some kind of Bermuda triangle, I learned a few months after return. During the work of the expedition was one tropical storm, and more nothing happened."

The main distributor of the Legend is'clock Berlitz, which can be called the commander of the mysterious Bermuda triangle. It is thanks to the millions of readers first learned that there is a Bermuda triangle. He made this Legend that many believed that there really is something extraordinary and mysterious. He did a great job and the result was a complex mosaic of mystery and supernatural phenomena. He made a list of the disappeared ships and aircraft. Some hoaxes Berlitz - class master. Cases which he described, and which we have referred, distorted, full of half-truths, inaccurate wording and inventions. In addition, Berlitz took part in the shooting of two television films. In the first, directed by Richard Winer in 1970, the Bermuda triangle depicted as a real "sea devil". We must pay tribute to the Director and the operator of the film, full of fear the eyes of the pilots who lose orientation, sudden onset of darkness, the disconnected devices, the crew does not know whether he flies his head up or down - it was so dramatic that many viewers believe the terrible mysteries of the Bermuda triangle.

In the second film, filmed in 1976, Berlitz appeared on screen as a witness. We saw a tall man with a dashing twirled moustache, answering the questions of the journalist. The questions were: "Mr. Berlitz, you write in your book that details of the catastrophe of the 19th link you learned at the control tower in Fort Lauderdale. With whom were you saying?"

Berlitz: "With captain Anderson.

Commentator: "Before us captain Anderson. Captain, you spoke with Mr. Berlicum about the case of the 19th link?" Captain Anderson shook his head and said, "No, I was there then no. There was somebody else".

Berlitz apologized: "Then it was Lieutenant garnet".

In the frame appears Lieutenant Garnett and meets the same as captain Anderson. He never talked to Berlicum. So with the help of witnesses commentator refutes one version after another. Finally'clock Berlitz declares that none of those who are standing in front of the camera, not able to say anything because it was a military secret. The argument, as you know, not too convincing.

Why Berlitz took this buffoonery in front of the camera? Why is he allowed to catch myself on deception? After all, he just proved that he is lying. He read the script and knew that the movie will be watched by millions of spectators. Likely to Berlitz for this, the primary was advertising. The film was said about him and his works, Luggage closeup showed the titles of his books, illustrations, text. And now, thanks to this, in General negative, advertising his books have bought or will buy hundreds of thousands of spectators who have an understandable desire to read themselves, what's happening there wrote this Berlitz.

Methods used by the creators of riddles

There are many legends about the phenomena that science is supposedly is able to explain about the phenomena that we do not understand about the supernatural phenomena. Not so important, what they - the Bermuda triangle, UFOs, Bigfoot, the Loch ness monster or disappeared Atlantis. In all these cases, the methods distributors legends same. The Bermuda triangle is the best field of their activity. This topic exploit hundreds of science fiction, authors, journalists, Directors and employees of television. The calculation is simple: everyone will read something from what he had goose bumps run on the skin. I love all the secrets and mysteries, some will even quite rubbing his hands, that behold, they say, there are people who can show these professoressa what they all do not know! There is something that between heaven and earth, and they do not know! I wouldn't want to offend anyone, maybe you have such a feeling, not at all, but with hand on heart, admit that sometimes you this worm gnaws. I, for example, there is a similar feeling when I look sports competitions and happy with the win some unknown so far talent over the famous Champions.

Distributors legends use the fact that readers are not very often kick yourself doubts read and will not verify what you read. Enjoy also the fact that even those readers who have a thought to check on something, do not have, as a rule, access to documentary material, scientific literature, maps, special journals. For example, the Bermuda triangle, we will show, what methods are distributors Legends.

1. Spread the lies. They themselves or create them, or consciously or unconsciously taken from the books of other writers and journalists. In the Legend of the Bermuda triangle of inventions too much. These include, for example, invented details: on the ship "V. A. Fogg" the captain was found in his cabin with a Cup of coffee in his hand; on the ship "Mary Celeste" lifeboats left untouched on Board, the plane for 10 minutes disappeared from the radar screen; in the day the weather was fine, although in reality was raging hurricane, etc. Some fictions surprisingly primitive, other more sophisticated. The most simple are wreck ships that never happened, to the more refined messages that airlines and shipping companies, paving the route for its aircraft and vessels, allegedly bypass the Bermuda triangle. Invented the message from the vessel "Daifuku-Maru": "It's like hitting a dagger!" Fictionally also strong magnetic anomalies and magnetic disturbances. Recent inventions can be attributed to the sophisticated.

Source fiction is sometimes possible to find, sometimes not. Often in the beginning of the chain is found ordinary journalistic "duck"that transcends then in other publications.

2. It is quite understandable and simple phenomena covered with a veil of mystery. Why vessel just to drown if it can "mysteriously"disappear"? Why the aircraft which had run out of gas, just drop into the sea, if they can ' disappear under mysterious circumstances"? Why do we ordinary tropical storm, if we can replace "mysteriously falling fast pressure"? Why at the junction of warm and cold waters should naturally be dense fog, if instead you may receive a "mysterious white milk, making orientation impossible"? Why sailors from a sinking ship go down to the water boats, if they can "jump into the sea and losing our minds from infrasound"? What to look for in superheated tropical waters crystals of calcium carbonate, if instead you can watch "the mysterious band of white water"?

Most of the stories invented by distributors Legends composed by the following recipe: "having Approached to the car, I saw that the wipers mysteriously disappeared. At each junction, I got a stoplight that, chances are, cannot be explained. When I got up on the hill near the village, the car slowed down. It seemed as if some mysterious force absorbed the energy of the motor. On leaving the village I was stopped by a traffic policeman, and, to my greatest surprise, was fined for speeding, though my speedometer showed just 60 km And then began to set in a mysterious and menacing wall of fog, I heard the ominous sounds, voices of the road". In the Newspapers, in the chronicle of incidents, later wrote that no one could logically explain how I ended up on the left side of the highway. There was no limit to the surprise of masters of automotive service when they saw my mangled car, and to me - not a scratch."

We allowed ourselves to only a small pun on the subject of fables about the triangle using the same language that is used lovers of secrets and mysteries. If they are eliminated, we will be banal case and nothing more. The same thing happens if from the Bermuda stories to strike out words and expressions such as "mysterious", "inexplicable", "illogical", "mysterious" and others. As a result, we get the usual case with understandable explanation.

3. Exaggerating. Almost any assertion distributors Legends, if it is not from the beginning to the end of fiction, is exaggerated. For example, the mere assertion that in the Bermuda triangle disappears extremely large number of ships and aircraft, is the usual exaggeration. The same character is the assertion that no debris of the aircraft and vessels had not been found, that the planes and the court did not report any problems before the accident. Frank overexposure is the statement about unexplained behavior of the compass, and the fact that the official institutions, that is, the relevant ministries, commissions, management and advice, helpless in resolving all these riddles. On the contrary, causes disasters in most cases, were established. If the reason was not found, the experts gave several variants of the alleged causes of accidents. And even they are a thousand times more plausibly those myths about aliens and black holes, which are fed gullible readers lovers legends.

Each "Bermuda" case, including them as they filed in the Legend, you can find a lot of exaggeration. For example, the Legend says that in the 19th link were experienced pilots, actually there were almost all beginners. Or is alleged that the ship was in good technical condition, and the Commission of inquiry establishes that it was "old trough", and even former captain surprised, as it is a "trough" have sunk before. The very wording of the Legend of the Bermuda triangle, as a rule, an exaggeration: "Inexplicably disappeared over 100 ships and aircraft..." But more than 75% of these "disappearances" have been explained. Distributors Legends think inexplicable disappearance even so, when the wreck was found by divers (the case of the ship "V. A. Fogg").

4. Distort the facts are inaccurate data, advertise stories. Inaccuracies, of course, connected with exaggeration. The legend of the Bermuda triangle has spread by the exaggerations, and with them overgrown and distortion. One could write a whole book about the inaccuracies in the description of the disappearance of ships and aircraft, in the description of the seas, the seabed and the atmosphere of the Bermuda triangle. The authors confuse the place of the accident, the ship's name, date, location. We have already talked about how deliberately distorted L. sou?ek circular United States coast guard, missing in it one, but crucially important word is imaginary.

Strongly distorted messages ships ' captains and pilots. Lieutenant Taylor, commander of the 19th link that was sent, according Including Berlitz, completely different, secret messages in no relation with those that were recorded in the log control-and-control center in Fort Lauderdale. In relation to launch a search of the plane, "Martin Mariner who are in search of the 19-th level, Including Berlitz and his supporters distort the time of departure. Thus, changing the whole situation, but, if to compare the actual facts and information, it is clear that the plane died in the explosion. Deliberately distorted data on the highway. They say that one of the lost aircraft flew along the Shannon (Ireland) - Kingston (Jamaica), from which it can be concluded that surely he had to fly through the Bermuda triangle, but "forget" to clarify that the plane disappeared on the part of the route Shannon - gander (Newfoundland).

False is the assertion that the mystery of the Bermuda triangle are studied within a broad international Oceanographic research. In fact, dynamics of a system of the Gulf stream and its relationship with the atmosphere.

5. Refer to your own experience or on the authority of those quoted. 'clock Berlitz already in the introduction to his book engaged in self-promotion. He writes that he is the grandson of the founder of the famous language school, knows 30 languages, brilliant, experienced diver, visited all the mysterious parts of the globe and so on, L. sou?ek know many captains of ocean vessels, read ship logs. D. Spencer refers to captain Craig, an experienced diver, who, he said, must know a lot about the secrets of the seabed in the area of the Bermuda triangle. But no knowledge of 30 languages, experience diver or familiarity with the captains do not serve even as evidence by these authors.

6. Their conclusions are erroneous. Sometimes distributors Legends based on real facts make meaningless conclusions on the type of joke about the "researcher": he put on the table flea, clapped his hands, and flea jumped. Then he cut off her legs, again put on the table and clapped his hands. Bloch not jumped. "Researcher" recorded "conclusion": if fleas cut legs, she loses hearing.

Examples of questionable conclusions in the "Bermuda" stories abound. Under water on the surface of the Bahamas cans there are many chasms, "blue holes" and flooded caves. It follows from this, they say distributors Legends that the sea is mysteriously, if it is so deformed bottom. The scientific explanation of this fact we've already given. The following example. Within the Bermuda triangle crashed the plane. We do not know the reasons of accident, but, after getting acquainted with the literature about the Bermuda triangle, find out that 20 years ago the ship sank, and the cause of the wreck is unknown. From this follows that the accident of the plane is also inexplicable, as it happened in the same area.

7. The interpretation of facts, documents and sources completely frivolous. The publication of all distributors Legends suffer from the lack of reference to the information sources. Scientists, as a rule, always make such links. If links are missing, it means that the findings are the result of research the author of the article or book. But neither Am Berlitz, no other distributors Legends is not specified, where did they get those or other facts. From Newspapers? From "Lloyd's Register"? L. sou?ek, for example, does not indicate the source of his information, but at first glance it is clear that his "facts" are taken from the book of Hours of Berlitz (at least, in terms of the Bermuda triangle). Have you noticed this vicious circle? One fan of mysteries draws information from another, equally. How can we trust this "information", if we suddenly learn that the first author of his informants just made that up.

8. Put demagogic questions. Daniken asks: "How else can we explain such-and-such?" H. of Berlin, and To° ask rhetorically: "How else to explain the disappearance of the plane a few minutes before landing, as no intervention of supernatural forces? How to explain the disappearance without trace of the flight of airplanes? How to logically explain the disappearance of large-capacity cargo ship?" Such "issues" sometimes look very impressive, but in essence they are all sheer demagoguery! We proved that we can give answers to all these questions, to explain all of extinction is much more believable than to shift the blame on supernatural power. In research we know of cases where different problems of natural and other Sciences can be explained by two or more ways. We choose this explanation that best corresponds to the known facts. If not enough facts, it is accepted explanation, which is the easiest. So wouldn't it be easier to explain the disappearance of the plane explosion than the capture of a flying saucer?

9. Trying to convince the reader that the scientists also seriously consider the Legend and examine it from a scientific point of view. Hence the constant references to the expedition, which are supposed to investigate the mysteries of the Bermuda triangle. In fact, the mystery of the triangle from the scientific point of view, nobody examines because no secrets at all does not exist. Science does not consider the above proposition is that this area is the place unexplained accidents. L. sou?ek tried to tell us that the circular of the United States coast guard determines the Bermuda triangle as the district where the court disappear for unknown reasons. Actually this document States that this supposed place of the disappearance of the courts.

No specialist on shipping not believe that, if from the sunken vessel not found any debris, so we can't logically explain its disappearance. The same applies to aviation. Know the problem of terrestrial magnetism with a grin will treat nonsense, invented PM Berlicum and his supporters about the magnetic anomalies. None oceanographer not believe in the supernatural where vortices are formed at the junction of two major trends. Meteorologist just laugh at the statement that misty walls are something inexplicable.

Well, now it's time to answer the question, how could receive such a distribution of the Legend of the Bermuda triangle. Its creators primarily relied on the fact that most readers will simply be unable to check those imaginary sources from which derive their information distributors Legends; they considered superficial knowledge of the majority of the readers of modern achievements of natural Sciences and technology; not on last place there is a suggestion. All this helped to create such a popular Legend.
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