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Viewings: 7178Moving the Mayan calendars in the modern system of chronology, some scientists have learned from ancient inscriptions information, according to which on Earth on December 23, 2012 will happen catastrophic event. The experts, however, disagree on the peculiarities of disasters: "solar system will die in the explosion in the center of the milky Way"; "the return of the chief deity of Maya will cause earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, huge tidal waves that will destroy the planet"; "Land will collide with an asteroid"; "Land will be arriving aliens, to make it a lifeless plain".
And what we know about this ancient nation of Indians Maya? Objectively, at the level of the facts?
After December 21, 2012 begins the Era of the Sixth Sun.
About Maya mainly write that they were so bloodthirsty that their celebrations were sinking in the blood of the unfortunate victims, bring a gift to the gods.
The most common of such a gift was made by the prisoners. But there were also many cases when victims were and noble persons from their own country.
Varied and ways please the gods from burying alive until vytiranija ripped up from the chest still throbbing heart.
To this add that the Mayan civilization, not knowing wheel, had information about Space and the future of the Universe.
Astronomers and mathematicians
Actually Maya knew and used not only wheel, and much of what, for example, the ancient Greeks were not even aware.
IX-VII centuries BC Mayan learn all the Northern extremity of South America, inhabit the Gulf coast, develop his farm in the southern part of modern Mexico, strengthened on the Yucatan Peninsula.
Today, found more than 1,000 settlements and more than 3,000 settlements Maya. Aware of the high level of literacy, art and architecture of this nation. Aware also of an extremely high level of mathematics and astronomy, which he achieved. For example, the zero as the number of Europeans recognized only... in the XVIII century ad, but, say, the ancient Greeks did not know. But the priests of Maya the zero actively used in the VI century BC, second in this part first place only to the Sumerians and Indians.
First carved in stone image solar Mayan calendar refers to 400 BC, At the same time, their civilization turns into a hierarchical society with kings, military leaders, nobles, priests, officials, commoners, and slaves.
This priesthood has its own hierarchy and in the management of small towns and villages is used election form of power - the mayors and the mayors of the cities mentioned in the stone Chronicles. By the way, Maya writing has become widely developed since 700 BC
At the turn of the era the main city of the Maya was Teotihuacan, and 500 years the capital of civilization becomes Tikal. However, this did not prevent the Governor another powerful city - Calakmul - 562, to captivate the king of Tikal and offer him as a sacrifice to the gods. This Tikal remained actual capital, but a great monument with a statue of the former king, built over five years before, preserved to our days.
Corn, tomatoes and cocoa
The peculiarity of the Mayan culture is that it reached its heyday in the humid tropical forests. Maya practiced slash and burn agriculture. In itself it does not provide sufficient food, because the soils and the land around settlements are being rapidly depleted.
But Maya has helped elaborate a calendar system that allowed to carefully plan and time to Valka felling of trees and bushes, burning in the dry season, planting crops shortly before the rains, and also daily care of plants.
The main food for the Maya served as corn. It was baked flat cakes, cooked different dishes and nutritious drink. A drink made of ground fruits of cocoa. Maya knew a lot of fruit and vegetables - potatoes, beans, tomatoes, pumpkin, green pepper, avocado. The meat is eaten mostly on holidays.
The Maya developed a variety of crafts. They worked stone and obsidian, receiving from them various tools (axes, knives, and other), weapons and jewelry. Clay used to make the dishes ritual and home, many other household items, as well as action figures and masks. Technical materials have served and plants. So, from the bark pikusova received the paper.
The development of crafts facilitated trade between settlements. Traded as artisan products and raw materials (stone, salt, cocoa, cotton). Basically trades was carried out through the exchange of goods, but there were some common equivalents, carrying out the role of money: cocoa beans, red shell, jade beads.
The play of light and darkness
The Maya believed that the universe consists of 13 of the heavens and 9 underground worlds. In their view, between the forces, prevailing at these levels, was a constant struggle, which was a confrontation between life, warmth, light and fertility and night, death, drought, disease, hunger.
Ritual ball game reflect this constant struggle, which has never ceased in the Universe. The Maya believed that every time they play the game of power, the giver of life, increase and dark forces are temporarily defeated.
The field for this game, built near the temple, had the shape of the Universe, where on both sides stood gate, which had to score goals. And there were towering above the box seats for spectators. Two teams of players symbolized the forces of good and evil, life and death. Players jostled shoulders and hips to make his way to the cherished mark and increase the score. The outcome of the game was considered a form of prophecy.
The main heavenly deity was the sun God of Itzamna. The sun rises in the East, and therefore all the heroes of the myths of the Maya also appear from the East in the rays of the rising sun. They are people the culture, laws, customs and knowledge.
Faith in the goodness East played with Maya bad joke when out on their lands was conquerors-Europeans: Indians initially imagined that this light-skinned heroes of their myths...
The end of civilization
To 900 year, many of the Mayan city was zapustili, villages and townships became extinct. What was the reason is unknown. But by the time of the Spanish arrival is little more than a dozen small and weak States that are constantly at war with each other.
First Spanish expedition reached the coast of Yucatan in 1517-18, and in 1519-m along the coast of the Peninsula through the famous conqueror Cortes. However, during this period, no swords and bullets Spaniards destroyed the Mayan and delivered by Europeans smallpox, influenza and measles.
In 1527 the Spaniards decided to make another attempt to win the Yucatan. And again failed. It took 170 years to fully subordinate the region. Only in 1697, Spain captured the last independent Mayan city of Tayasal. To know and priests who showed resistance were physically destroyed. The government moved to Spanish officials.
Was spread Catholicism, destroyed the image of gods, temples and altars, and burned the manuscript. The history of the ancient people had come to an end.
The Era Of The Sixth Sun
So, it's time to return to the famous calendar and the end of the world, which he allegedly predicts. The fact that the Maya had two calendars. The so-called "civil calendar - Haab is used in everyday life and consisted of 365 days in a year.
As for the second - professional-priestly calendar, it was extremely difficult, but very accurate. Was a priestly calendar of several components. Simultaneous 13 - and 20-day countdown, plus the meaning of the name time periods, plus the characters of the day, plus the so-called "Long calendar", which was conducted counting from the day of creation of the world.
It is indeed very long - the number of years elapsed since the day of creation, the Maya indicated 32-digit number! (For comparison: the 100 billion - the number 12-digit).
By the way, priestly the Mayan calendar their neighbours - Aztecs - every 52 years met, noted and followed... the end of the world! Analyzed made, drowned, burned, buried alive guilty in this period, and then loudly and cheerfully celebrated the dawn of a new era.
Now, priestly calendar we have now ends the Era Fifth Sun. It began on August 13, 3114 B.C. and will end on the 21st or 23rd of December (according to different estimates) of 2012. Then, according to the Mayans, will begin the Era of the Sixth Sun.
Descendants of the Maya, including those, whose lineage dates back to the priesthood, and even today can be found in remote villages of Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. Ancient knowledge, including scared all the calendar, there continue to exist in oral form, passed from generation to generation, and this calendar is still define many aspects of their lives.
However, when the leaders of the Maya, in order to learn their opinion about the end of the world in 2012, addressed reporters, they came in bewilderment. Nothing of the sort themselves Maya't wait...
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