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Viewings: 5874Established in Mexico, the Spaniards tried not to remember about the disappeared of the Mayan civilization. Too much was cruel and bloody page in the history of their conquest. And yet the time came when they started talking again. At first there were legends. They were passed from mouth to mouth, and everyone tried to decorate them, adding its share of fiction. But in 1836 American traveler Joseph Stephens accidentally discovered in London report the Spanish officer Antonio del Rio, written in the late 16th century. And a beautiful legend about the Indians appeared in a new light. Del Rio argued that in the Yucatan jungle was great Indian city. Joseph Stephens invited the artist Frederico of Kauperwood, and they went on to establish the truth. The travellers moved through the roads of Yucatan, but never seen the pyramids, no palaces or temples.
Only tropical forests and wetlands. It seemed that in this unkind edge there could be no civilization. Probably, be in place Stephens anybody else on this would have ended. But he did not stop searching until he met Indians, who knew about the city ruins in the jungle. These ruins were ancient temples. Their walls were so thickly covered with tropical plants that could pass by and not to notice. When the travelers got inside one of the temples, they were struck by the amazing art of the ancient inhabitants of Mexico.
Kauperwood carefully sketched all that uvidel on the walls of the sanctuary, and Stephens in detail all apisalome, they continued the search for and find the ancient city of Chichen Itza. Learned that in indijski "Chi" means "mouth", "Chen"-"the well". Therefore, Chichen Itza- "the mouth of the well". Where this well, which gave the name to the whole city? Again the search. And again good luck. The book that wrote Stephens and Kauperwood said: "This well was the biggest and most mysterious of all we met on the Yucatan: he was dead, as if in him dwelt the spirit of eternal silence". Their book has confirmed the existence of the Maya civilization, but has not revealed the mystery of the sacred well. Dozens of travelers rushed to the Yucatan for its solution. Scientists ethnographers began to rummage in the archives of the Church, hoping to find some evidence of the witnesses of the time of the conquest. In 1864 they found the book, Diego de Landa "Message about the Affairs of Yucatan". Its author was the local Bishop, when the Spaniards conquered Mayan. He ordered to burn their invaluable book "Destiny Maya", leaving the descendants of his own work. Landa told about how the Maya treated fields, how was the state system, any customs. "So that they had the custom of the above and more recently to throw into the well of living people in sacrifice to the gods during the drought. They believed that the victim did not die, though, was never seen.
Dropped it in many other things of precious stones and items that they considered valuable. And if in this country fell gold, a large part of it was to get well because of awe, which owed him Indians". The word "gold" thrilled enterprising businessmen and hunters. And the palm among those who wanted to get rich at the expense of the ancient Maya, should be given to American Edward Thompson. Learning from books Diego de Landy that gold buried in the Holy well, I intended to get at it. In order to facilitate their travel to the Yucatan, Thompson decided to enter the diplomatic service, offering state Department its services as Consul there. His officials were surprised:"Why this young man is torn down? As American citizens in the Yucatan not." Thompson received a diplomatic passport, which, in his opinion, was to protect from accidents and troubles in search of treasure. Instead diplomatic reference books and instructions for consular Affairs he took with him several books experienced hunters, plans of Chichen Itza and, of course, notes de Landa and Stephens. Went 1885, when Edward Thompson arrived on the boat in the capital of Yucatan Merida. The authorities warmly welcomed the new Consul and was very surprised when in the first days after his arrival he went to Chichen Itza. Mules stopped at a stone houses Hacienda, on the threshold of which appeared gloomy Manager. -The owner is not,he warned, " but, if you want to stay here, can offer you a room. It will cost...-here's managing hesitated, afraid to sell too cheap, but realizing that perhaps soon found the second guy that wanted to stay here.
Thompson interrupted flour, stating that the price does not matter, and told me to take things. He was not anxious to take a walk to the pyramid. He wore high boots, put on the belt of a gun, and over the shoulder slung the strap of his rifle and went to the exploration areas. The path up the hill among the huge stones and huge trees. Look Thompson randomly stopped on the white stone, the surface of which was clearly cut. And then it dawned: why, stones, along which he walked, it is the remains of columns, standing before the temples, and overgrown with bushes Playground nothing like terrace, aligned by human hands. Edward looked up and froze. He saw the stone colossus, stretching into the sky, on top of which stood the temple with darkened by time and moss-covered walls. But from the road, once climbed the pyramid to the Sacred well, no trace is left. There was twisted vines dense tropical forest. However, it didn't matter, because Thompson knew that the length of the road was just three hundred meters and she was walking from the pyramids directly North. He defined on the sun side of the world and crept through the forest. And finally saw what he was looking for - the legendary and mysterious Sacred well. In diameter he was sixty meters. In his very edge of the wall stood a forest. And only from one side to greenish surface were wide steps.
For a week Thompson lived on the Hacienda and every day in the morning went to the ruins Cisen-Itza, opening new churches, seats on the edge of the well. And every day he became more confident that it deep underwater hidden wealth of the ancient inhabitants of the capital city of the Maya. But he was unable to do anything because this whole area was the property of the owner of the Hacienda Lord of Ortegas, who lived in Merida. Finally, notified the Manager of the arrival of American, appeared the owner of the ancient city. Their acquaintance ended that Thompson had bought the Hacienda and became the owner of the sacred well. After such a successful deal, citing the malaise from local heat, he hurried back to the States. Asked the state Department vacation and sat down guidelines for vodolazes case. After reviewing them, Edward himself designed a special excavator, which can be installed on the edge of the sacred well. When all was ready, the treasure hunt appeared before the members of the American antiquarian society and Museum staff Pylori Harvard University. He put before them the project of future work and told about his purchased the Hacienda, where in the forest lay the ruins of the ancient capital of the Maya of Chichen Itza. Pundits thought. Of course, the project was risky. But you never know. Maybe, though the well lies the treasure of the Maya. This young man is confident of success. And Thompson received a check in please amount. Elated, he returned to the Yucatan: in the hold of the ship was digger, in boxes lay diving equipment. Nemalye difficulties of Tamron got with his cargo to the Hacienda, hired peasants Indians to make our way to the Sacred well. Several days were spent in order to drag out the excavator and collect it. Finally the moment arrived.
American along with managing the Hacienda Maurilio have to spin winch handle. Closer and closer to water down the ladle steel teeth. Another minute and she goes into greenish surface of the well. The Indians gathered around, closed his eyes : they thought that now would be a miracle. Maybe bucket will fly back from the water. Maybe bucket generally one never will see - it will destroy God yum-chak. But Nicene not happened. Just rope suddenly sagged when the bucket is lowered into the well bottom. Edward in her strength of nadig the handle of a winch. He felt the weight of the bucket and had no doubt that it gold. The last turn of the handle, and enmeshed in a tin bucket slowly emerged from the water. Now he was on the shore. He opened his Stalina mouth, and content tumbled to the ground. Thompson ran to the mountain of dirt that was spreading over the floor, and as crazier was not enough hands. Only dirt. Any fragment of the vessel or a pebble. Alas, nothing. Bucket shook to the ground new party dirt. And again Edward frantically dug into and kneading her hands. The result is the same. The sun was nearing its end, stopped in the forest birds. But the Americans didn't let go of Indians, forcing turn to turn the handle of the winch. Again and again dived bucket in the Sacred well. Then Thompson ordered the Indians to saw off a few block of wood, appropriate to the size and weight of the average person. Then he started to throw them into the well to determine the place where there could be human remains. The boom stopped in the planned place, bucket fell into the water and again pulled out the dirt. This was repeated day after day, but Thompson didn't want to admit his defeat. From morning till night Indians twisted the handle of the winch, and he stood under a canopy of palm leaves and out of touch watched grew on the site of a pile of sludge. Finally, his perseverance paid off.
When the bucket once again emerged from the water, Edward suddenly saw on the surface of the brown dirt in it two yellowish - white ball. As soon as he apostilsI, the American rushed and grabbed these lumps. Carefully examining them. It is clear that they were made by man, but why. Thompson broke one of them and licked. No taste. Then he walked over to the fire, sitting near it Indians, and held the lumps over the coals. The air was instantly filled with the fragrance. And then he remembered an old legend that in the ancient Mayan burned svyashenniy pitch and, with its fragrant smoke prayed to Almighty God. So, these lumps - balls sacred resins, which were thrown into the well with other offerings Hume-Chuck. After this discovery bucket almost every time raised new evidence that Thompson was on the right track. The first valuable discovery was a symbolic figure, carved jade. Then, finally, appeared and the first gold thing is the drive on which was engraved some figure. A few days continued the triumph of the hunters: digger pulled out all the new wealth of the sacred well. Indians silently met each discovery crazy American. But when steel teeth bucket brought human skeleton, their fear seized:"is the sacrifice Hume-Chuck. We took it from God. He will punish all of us for this"Dengami and threats Thompson still managed to get them to continue working. However, the bucket is raised only all new bones, skulls, skeletons. But he was sure that there, under water in the bottom of a well, there is a lot of precious things made of gold and jade. Just bucket can't catch them. American sent a telegram to the sea port of Campeche, where he had an agreement with two Greek fishers of sponges. They have sensitive fingers, they will be able to find gold in the mud. In that day to the Sacred well brought vodolaznaja equipment.
After receiving the advance payment, Greek divers were ready to start working. But Edward Thompson decided to go down first. Pulling with their help, diving suit, he went to the stairs at the edge of the well, where the Manager Maurilio and other Indians solemnly shook hands with him, being reconciled, that back he will not return. To move on the day he had to touch, because even a torch was unable to break through the eternal darkness. Because of this, the diver was threatened with serious danger. But not from God yum-Chuck. Every minute on the head could have fallen logs and stones, of which there were many in the well. Behind him came down divers Greeks. Their sensitive fingers really fast found in the crevices of the well Golden statuettes, disks, blades of obsidian with gold handles in the form of snakes. Soon bags divers were overflowing with the precious finds. When chests filled with gold ornaments, figurines made of jade, rare ancient weapon, Edward Thompson, without delay, loaded them on a ship and sailed to the States.
Produced treasures he donated to the Museum Pylori Harvard University, earning them a large sum. In 1910 in Mexico there was a revolution. The new government asked Thompson to return at least part of the treasure, because it is the national wealth. American refused, saying that if he has not learned them, they were buried at the bottom of the well for a thousand years. Then he was ordered to pay compensation in five hundred thousand dollars. Rejected again. The Mexican government confiscated his Hacienda and the property remaining in Chichen Itza. However, all the treasures of the sacred well Maya is the national pride of Mexico remained at the American Museum Pylori. After returning to the States, Thompson published his diary , in which he described how he had managed to wrest from the sacred well of the treasures of the Maya, and claimed that made the greatest archaeological otkrytii. He was almost choking with excitement, telling raised piles of gold necklaces, bracelets, necklaces, ceramic bowls with ornaments, bas-relief panels with pictures, statues, boxes, mirrors. After his findings could lead to the impression that archaeologists and historians have nothing more to do in the sacred well. However, Mexican scientists have come to a different conclusion. First, the well was dug by human hands.
Maya did not build such facilities , and collected water from natural sources. Well most likely had karst origin. Once in its place was a karst cave. Then her arch collapsed and formed a pond with a diameter of 60 meters. It happened about two thousand years ago . Then, at the bottom must accumulate a very thick layer of silt that Thompson could not bail out using a hand winch. Secondly , by complex calculations historians have come to the conclusion that the rite of sacrifice at the sacred well started around 450 ad and was practiced almost a thousand years. Thus, Thompson was able to raise no more than one tenth of the treasures of the Maya, accumulated in the well. Conclusion signed a number of prominent Mexican scientists, said there is every reason to organize ekspediciju for re-examination of the sacred well of the modern technical level. The priceless treasures of the Maya, who surely there must get in national museums. Otherwise they'll get avid hunters. In 1954 in Chichen Itza went first scientific expedition, organized by the Mexican national Institute of anthropology and history. It was headed by a great supporter of study pre-Columbian Emilio Portes Hilo. By his order were made special diving suits, in which the bottom of the well was about to go and scientists. However, upon arrival at the place where they were faced with an unexpected obstacle.
From ancient Maya came legend that Sacred well protected from intruders Supreme gods of Yucatan. If someone is plotting to usurp his treasures, they turn water into human blood that is unable to withstand no mortal. Indeed, when the members of the expedition went to the well, he was filled with water, blood - red color. Of course, it didn't scare scientists. But to work in the well, it was almost impossible. Despite strong electric lights, divers did not even see his own hands. Try to touch search in Ile priceless antiquity meant to be like "gravelly" Thompson, who is absolutely not interested in topography of discoveries, so important for archaeologists. The very same red color of the water was caused quite prosaic reason is harmless microscopic algae. When I started to rot fallen from the trees, leaves, weeds rapidly multiplied. It was enough to add water special chemical that kills them , and it became normal color. However, all this was found out later. The task of the Mexican Institute of engineers designed a pneumatic device for otkatki water and sludge, called "the airlift". In 1961 it in parts delivered in Chichen Itza, mounted on a large raft and for testing lowered into the well.
At the bottom dropped wide rubber sleeve, and Emilio Portes Hilo has been solemnly switched pump airlift. Do they Il began to act upon the sleeve up and fall in a fine-mesh sieve, near which were guarded by archaeologists. Each raised the subject was in the registry and immediately received the scientific description. A few weeks expedition extracted from a well about 4000 various ancient objects: Golden chest jewelry, earrings, combs, necklaces, brass buttons, rings, small figures of gods, orgiesswedish and curiosities. Once in a sieve fell several dolls, sdelannyh of rubber. According to experts, these were the most ancient articles of rubber on the ground. But that's how they got into the Sacred well,remained a mystery. Everything seemed to be going well, but the head of the expedition Hilo ordered to stop work to dismantle the airlift. He said that when lifting heavy pump damage fragile items, especially clay, which are valuable archeological documents. It took six years of cooperation with engineers to improve the airlift and to prepare the third expedition to the ruins of the ancient capital of the Maya. In early 1968 through the Yucatan jungle moved a huge caravan: tractors, cars and even a horse was carrying part of the 25-ton crane with a 60-metre boom, 15-meter pontoon, powerful diesel pumps, boxes of food and preservatives for the preservation of the finds. This time the scientists gathered in a literal sense, to the bottom of the scoop Sacred well, to reveal all its secrets. Promotion of the caravan went though and slowly, but quite successfully, taking into account the state of unpaved roads. And only on the way to Chichen Itza, an unexpected delay. Suddenly rose heavy wind, the sky has clouded clouds, gushed the strongest tropical downpour.
We had to break up a temporary camp. Among the workers of the expedition were the direct descendants of the Maya. They told sorry scientists ancient legend that explains the sudden ninstead on the Yucatan appeared enemies on the way to Chichen Itza, God yum-Chuck got out of the sacred well, and were brought down to earth horrible showers. And the time of the year did not play a role. And to scare the aliens and show that it hinders their progress, yum-Chuck threw on roads dead snakes. This explanation of the change in the weather looked impressive. Why else would be in the middle of the dry season suddenly the heavens opened? And on roads throughout the County really lay many dead snakes. Actually yum-Chuck was here at anything. Just the expedition forgot one small thing is to study the weather forecast. Meanwhile, it is the time expected next Typhoon from the Atlantic. As for snakes, they just drowned in the rain flows, which made them become channels of the road. And here the scientists came to mind an interesting hypothesis. What if the Maya priests knew the secrets of meteorological forecasts? Maybe they guessed approaching typhoons and held their ceremonies with sacrifices just before the start of the rains? In order not to lose time, part of archaeologists with Ruczekaj behind left foot in Chichen Itza, where started excavations near the sacred well. And there they waited for the first surprise.
At the edge of the karst area in front of failure they found a carefully concealed niche-the storeroom, where lay the jade idols, stone snakes, clay idols and large stone statues yum-Chuck. Most likely it was NZ for emergency cases during the ceremonies. Several days later, when the storm was over and the roads dried to the well arrived lifting equipment. After powerful pumps lowered the water level in it for five metres, and the chemicals covered her, got down pontoon with airlift. To protect findings from damage during pumping of sludge long sleeve, the sieve is installed directly on the pontoon, also at the bottom of the well are constantly on duty divers,who watched the suction nozzle. To them belongs the credit of important discoveries : deep in the bottom layer of sludge they found large basalt sculptures jaguars, which was considered the Maya trusted servants yum-Chuck. Of course, even the most powerful pump would not have caused these heavy rock to the surface. Following the jaguars were raised head stone snakes. Moreover, when with sculptures removed the covering their crust, archaeologists saw with amazement that, after lying in the mud for many centuries, they nevertheless retained its bright coloring. Meanwhile, the airlift was served in a sieve that almost a thousand years, Maya was thrown into the Sacred well. Of course , there were all sorts of products from gold, with much more than could get Thompson.
But archaeologists were more interested in ordinary things that gave an idea of life in old Chichen Itza: brooches from sea corals, home of the gods from valuable breeds of wood, gilded infant sandals, pieces of cloth, embroidered with gold thread, the vase with a dozen well-preserved paintings. It was also learned more than three hundred human skeletons: caused a real sensation: among them only two or three were female. One skeleton is clearly belonged to the old man. All the rest were children. So was refuted the legend of brides yum-Chuck, the most beautiful seventeen year old girls. Moreover, by scrupulous analysis of the different objects in the heavy layer of silt of archeology managed to clarify the course of the ceremony of sacrifice. It turned out that the priests were first thrown into the sacred well of jewelry art items, and images of the gods. If the rain is still not started , comes the turn of human victims. And they did not cast him into the pit alive. Cruel tradition required previously to kill the victim obsidian knife on the edge of the area at the well. Fresh children's blood was smeared stone idols, which are then also flying into the water. However, left, and many mysteries. For example , under plates the same site found a hole with fifty children's skulls. For them there were hidden, unknown. How and why the priests were drowned head stone snakes, and their bodies were buried. It was written by the scientists of the history of the treasure of the Maya, initiated by the greed of treasure-hunter Thompson.
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