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Поединок с «черной смертью»Since then it's been almost twenty-five centuries, but such a terrible time humanity, perhaps, is not worried. Europe was gripped by a terrible natural disasters: the strongest earthquakes, eruptions of volcanos, flooding, hunger. And on top of it from Asia Minor came epidemic of some strange and terrible disease.

Deadly attack

The ancient Greek historian Thucydides wrote about it: "the People were astonished at her suddenly, in the midst of perfect health. At first began high fever and inflammation of the eyes, tongue became blood red, breathing heavy. In a short time the disease was down on his chest and was accompanied by a deep cough. The body has gained a bluish-purple hue and covered purulent abscesses. In seven or eight days many sick were dying".

It is believed that it was the plague. No one disease was brought to the grave as many people as brought the plague, the black death, as called it in the people. It caused panic in the people, destroyed the whole city, and sowed around decay and ruin.

Scientists estimate that over the centuries the mankind has experienced more than eighty strongest plague epidemics. The most devastating of them broke out about six hundred fifty years ago. The plague was held in many countries of Europe and Asia. She did not spare anyone - whether poor or rich, neither the people, nor of the kings. In the countries covered by this deadly scourge, then went to the grave of more than 25 million people! No one knew how to escape from the "black death". Prayers, fasts, even strict quarantine - all in vain.

Has not passed the black death and Russia. Nine centuries ago in Kyiv, according to the chronicler, two weeks from the terrible Mora killed at least seven thousand people! Not once plague devastated Moscow, Smolensk, Chernihiv. In ancient Pskov and Novgorod she put two-thirds of the inhabitants, and in smaller cities the population died out almost entirely.

On the approaches to the mystery

In one ancient chronicle after the invasion of plague is written: "it was Impossible to find anyone who buried the dead - neither friendship, nor for money." People have ceased to sow and harvest. Killed livestock. As of the pack of hungry wolves roamed the streets deserted cities.

And much later, 150 years ago, "the black death" still visited Russia. Then she was silent, and seemed gone forever. One of the St. Petersburg Professor in 1874 even declared loudly: "nowadays Russian man should be horned cattle or pig that at the present time the celebration of medicine ill with a disease like the plague".

But after just four years after having been uttered these words, the plague again appeared on the Russian land in one of the Cossack stanitsas. Almost all the doctors, who came to the aid have contracted the plague and died. Among the population of those places there was panic. And then remembered that one of the first from the plague and died an old man, reputed to be here sorcerer that, dying, he allegedly predicted the imminent death to all. To remove the curse, it was decided to dig a grave and score it aspen Nr. did. Unfortunately, this only furthered the spread of infection.

Risky experiments

In 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte began a military campaign in Egypt against the British. In the besieged French

troops of the fortress city of Alexandria was an outbreak of plague. And here in this town, the English physician A. Wight spent desperately bold experience.

In the hospital where he worked, a woman was lying, diseased bubonic plague. The brave doctor learned from buboes plague boil this sick little pus and RUB it in his left thigh. The next day the white reiterated a crazy experience, thus strengthening it. He has done on his right forearm cut and made into a wound pus diseased. White soon fell ill with the plague and on the eighth day he died in agony.

It would seem that the tragic death of the English physician forever will deter others from similar deadly experiments. But no! It is thirty-six years, and another doctor, this time the Frenchman A. Bular did something similar in a desperate risk. He later recalled: "on 15 may 1834, I took off all my clothes and without taking any precautions and protective equipment, wearing men suffering from severe form of plague. This shirt was still retained the warmth of another body was covered with blood. I went and slept in it for two days, without any signs of disease."

Indeed, Belaru very lucky. Plague he never was ill, thus proving that the black death is not always transferred from a sick person to a healthy one.

The experiments continue

By the way, the doctor suggested that French Commission on combating plague conduct dangerous experiments on criminals, sentenced to death, of course, the volunteers, with the promise of a pardon. And five suicide bombers, was indeed grafted plague. Only one of them died. Four survived and were later pardoned.

Bular was a follower, his countryman, the 27-year-old doctor Antoine clot. He risked their lives also decided to prove to himself that plague falls ill, not everyone, even during the epidemic, and to appease the population. Clot continued to experience Bular, but went much further than his predecessor.

He soskreb with shirts plague patient portion of dried blood and pus and was vaccinated in six places of his body. Moreover, all of the wounds were covered with bandages soaked in the blood of the sick. But this desperate doctor was not enough. He cut himself on the arm of the skin and the wound made pus from the plague of the boil. Then put on the clothes of the sick, and when he died, he lay down in his bed. In short, the clot has taken all to definitely get sick with a terrible disease, but again, a miracle happened: he was not ill!

The experiences of doctors themselves are not over, they continued and often ended tragically. Austrian physician A. Rozenfel'd had as its objective to test the tool against the "black death". Prescriptions drugs, ostensibly to protect against plague (at the time the cause of it was not yet known), there existed in Europe, and in the East.

Saving vaccine

In those days strongly recommended anti-plague "medicine", made from dried glands and bone powder of people who died from the plague. It was considered that the formula adopted by the inside, will act as a vaccine. Rosenfeld decided to test its effect on themselves.

His experiment he conducted in one of the hospitals of Constantinople. Rosenfeld took "healing" powder and lay down on the bed among two dozen victims of the plague. The days passed, and the pilot was alive and well, though every day in his house some of the patients died. Then Rosenfeld decided to toughen the experience. On several occasions he rubbed his skin on the thigh with pus, taken from plague of boils, and waited consequences.

Six weeks Rosenfeld were among the victims of the plague, and nothing wrong with it not occurred. He was about to leave the house, convinced that the experience was a success and, therefore, protective agent in fact effectively as he suddenly appeared ominous signs of the plague. The status of the doctor was getting worse, and after a few days of suffering, he died.

Only in 1894 finally managed to open the plague pathogen - new wand. Hope to win over the "black death" is looming on the horizon. It turned out that the plague spread rats, however, not directly, but via fleas. And once it became known pathogen, it appeared, and the vaccine against this terrible disease. It was created and first experienced Russian doctor Vladimir Khavkin operating in India. The vaccine Khavkin saved from the death of a million human lives.

And still plague on Earth is not yet destroyed. The black death only lurks like a wounded animal. From her people continue to die.
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