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Комета ISON подойдет вплотную к ЗемлеIn autumn 2013 to the Earth close ancient comet, which moves along a unique trajectory. Scientists expect that by its brightness, it will Eclipse the moon and will be visible to the naked eye, even in the daytime.

Heavenly body discovered, Russian astronomers. After a single revolution around the Sun, the comet will forever go into interstellar space - in the "Oort cloud". The so-called giant sphere, consisting of trillions of ice blocks. Sphere surrounds the Solar system. Its radius is about one light year, i.e. a quarter of the way to the nearest neighboring star.

When astronomers Vitaly Nevsky and Artem Novichonok saw on the monitor bright spot, they did not know that this comet. Scientists have downloaded to your computer images of the night sky, obtained by means of a 40-cm telescope in the city of Kislovodsk in the South of Russia. Such telescopes are used for the detection of asteroids, explained head of the Department of physics and evolution of stars of the Institute of astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences Dmitry vibe:

"Asteroids, comets and other bodies of the Solar system slowly move on General starry background. Therefore, the search for such objects is conveniently done using computer software, which compares the pictures of the star sky, obtained with some time interval, ranging from a few minutes. When the program observes that some object in the picture shifted, she reports that the potentially interesting asteroid or, as it turned out in this case, the comet".

Soon scientists have a more clear pictures of the sky. No doubt that tiny point of light is it a comet - was gone. While it is beyond the orbit of Jupiter. Astronomers have given her the name ISON (International Scientific Optical Network) - the name of the computer network for remote control telescopes, connected and Kislovodsk Observatory. Through this network, observers receive images from remote telescopes, including from other countries. For example, Russian automatic Observatory in new Mexico, located in the United States. However, Dmitry vibe stipulates that the discoveries ISON the network is not needed:

"In this particular case, the comet was discovered by astronomers, which was near the telescope, independently conducted supervision and right there in the Observatory consumed them. In other cases it happens that the asteroids and comets are opened by using remote access.
Having the exact coordinates of the new celestial object, astronomers began to study archive documents. The first lucky American colleagues - they found ISON my images the end of 2011. New data have allowed to specify the orbit, which was open. This means that the space wanderer suited to the Sun once.

Comet, according to preliminary calculations, has experienced many of the era in the development of the Solar system. Until the young Earth was confronted with other celestial bodies, and of fragments formed the Moon, while on Mars disappeared water, and on Earth originated life - all this time ISON started its move from the Oort cloud. Under the influence of gravity of the Sun, the comet was increasing gradually. And now it is only in his life a date with our luminary.

Because ISON never was in the inner regions of the Solar system, it preserved the distinctive imprint of the interstellar medium. The surface of the comet for hundreds of millions of years darkened from shock galactic particles. At the same time, there are no traces of the "solar wind", as, for example, on the moon. The study of the surface of such comets can provide invaluable information about the evolution of the Universe implies the press Secretary of the Pulkovo Observatory Sergei Smirnov:

"It would be good to have ready spacecraft to rendezvous with such bodies. But because of the high speed landing and attempt to take samples of the substance will be very difficult. With the development of the Russian Academy of Sciences to intercept objects, coming from the Oort cloud, it would be great".

While ISON visible only under a powerful telescopes. But by the end of the summer, enjoy the space wanderer will be using a regular pair of binoculars. And in November, when the comet crosses earth's orbit, its dark sheath dissolves, revealing an ice core. The comet will appear "tail", it will become much brighter and will be visible even during the day. How long will a beautiful sight is currently unknown.

The fact that on November 28 the comet very close fit to the Sun and under the influence of high temperatures can fall apart. If this does not happen, then it will be visible to the naked eye until almost the end of December. And goodbye, forever going into the depths of space, the comet will present one more surprise. On 14-15 January, the Earth will pass through the remains of the "tail of the comet and the inhabitants of the earth will see the meteor shower.

Boris Pavlishchev
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