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Viewings: 3620In the beginning of 1960-ies the American society and scientists were unpleasantly surprised by the successes of the USSR in space. We are the first in 1957 launched an artificial satellite, and April 12, 1961 man in space. And in 1961, US President John Kennedy addressed the Congress of the Union, by proposing to do everything in order before 1970 to fly to the moon landing astronauts.
America wanted revenge, having a lunar program, which he called "Apollo". The responsibility for the fulfillment of this mission was assigned to NASA. For implementation of the programme was to create a launch vehicle, capable of putting into orbit 100 tons of cargo, and also the spacecraft to deliver astronauts to the moon and back. The program "Apollo" was headed by German coach Werner von Braun. Soon they created a few boosters "Saturn". The main rocket, designed to run the Apollo to the moon, "Saturn-5".
At the same time created the Apollo"consisted of command and lunar modules. The command module consisted of the crew module and service compartment, where the engine. It was intended for flying astronauts to the moon and return to Earth. The crew compartment was and spustenim apparatus, in which the astronauts would be landed. It was tight, had the shape of a cone. Mass was about 6 so All three astronauts safely housed in the crew compartment in the chairs. In one sitting, command module pilot, in another - the commander of the ship and in the third - pilot. In the crew compartment was located main instruments and life support system with an oxygen atmosphere. The system of landing consisted of three parachutes diameter 26 m and three inflatable balloons that protected the Bay from the coup in water head down. In the crew compartment was located: the fuel tank of motor vehicle systems, fire extinguisher, containers for equipment storage of food supplies and canister with drinking water.
Flight tests of rocket technology "Apollo" was launched in 1964. April 4, 1968, took place the next launch of "Saturn-5" with command module pilot on Apollo 6". But in December 1965 in NASA decided to make the first test flight of the command module ("Apollo-1") in 1966. Then formed the crew and started training. The Prime crew included Virgil of Grissom, Edward white, Donna Asela. And in the backup was James Mcdivitt, David Scott and Roger Caffi. But Aysel suddenly got injured, and his place in the main crew got Caffi. The program of the flight of Apollo-1" duration-14 days provided for the test command module in earth orbit and rendezvous with the space Gemini 12".
Flight of the manned spaceship "Apollo-2" with the cycle of medical experiments and duration in the same 14 days planned in 1967. At the end of March 1966 officially announced the crews of the flight of Apollo-1". The Prime crew entered Grissom, white, Caffi. Not far away was before the start of the Apollo 1" (scheduled for March 1967). The launch vehicle with the spacecraft was already on the launch pad at Kennedy space center (Cape Canaveral). Last hosted ground training of crews and personnel of the cosmodrome. And then (at the end of 1966) then popular in the States clairvoyant Jane made sweeping statement is a prediction, warning the wife of one of the Department heads flights (gene stout)that the astronauts preparing for a flight to the moon, can be killed. She said a lot of words, among which stood out her personal vision capsules astronauts, where on the floor was a kind of foil, which will lead to catastrophe: "See how astronauts are trying to leave the cabin. See puffs of smoke even feel the smell of it". Jane did make predictions, but more often they had nothing in common with reality, but here...
THE FIRE IN COMPARTMENT
on January 27, 1967 American crew, who were preparing for a manned mission conducted a regular workout at space center. On the launcher was a rocket Saturn-1 B" block "Apollo". Three astronauts (Grissom, white, Caffe) were in the main compartment of the carrier rocket " Saturn"in the manned compartment. There was calmly located three adult men in suits. One works, the other is secondary problems, and the third - rests. Everything went as usual. Rocket Saturn was on the launch pad, but it was not fueled training. Therefore no reason for any unrest. But as always, the fire in compartment broke out suddenly, becoming an absolute surprise for both astronauts and engineers. The fire occurred exactly at 18 : 31 and continued in the Bay just 15 seconds. Immediately ignited all the inner lining of the capsules.
Radio operators at the control Centre of flights heard in the headphones the dying screams of Roger Caffi: "Damn, burn! Get us out of here quickly." Roger was only 31 years old. After just 14 seconds of capsules and from the cockpit of the "Apollo" threw thick, dark gray smoke, as predicted by Jane. Alas, to help the astronauts did not have time. In this caustic and poisonous smoke melting plastic astronauts suffocated before rescuers managed to open the hatch. This time was enough for all three astronauts burned in the capsule. It is only on the sunroof opening while the engineers spent a minute and a half long.
As I later found out, most likely, it was the usual short circuit in the wiring capsules. The cabin of the spacecraft was equipped with temporary electrical wires, but no one saw that one of them was damaged insulating film. It is very possible that it damaged the entrance hatch. And on the damaged wire with an incredible way someone put or dropped metal wrench. Then when you create inner shell of the spacecraft widely used flammable plastic, which is easier to adapt in the cabin (light, flexible, available). And someone (perhaps even one of the astronauts or engineers) who put this spanner in the exposed wires, creating the ground for the fatal circuit. From electrical sparks in pure oxygen atmosphere instantly broke out all around that could burn.
By the way, in Soviet spacecraft then used the typical atmosphere for breath, as in the earth's atmosphere. But in the American space program experts established an atmosphere of pure oxygen, which turned out to be more dangerous. She had some advantages, but turned out to be a cause terrible disaster. Short circuit of electric wiring under the flight chair of Roger Caffe and pure oxygen atmosphere on the ship has led to a strong fire.
On that black day for America when the tests were killed astronauts: Colonel Edward white (37 years, the first American astronaut, came out into open space in 1965), Colonel Virgil Grissom (41 years were flying by mercury and Gemini", the person who committed his second space flight), Lieutenant commander Roger Caffi (prepared for the first flight). They were the first victims of American space exploration.
Because of this tragedy, NASA has cancelled all flights. Engineers had to quickly finalize the ship, to intensify security measures. Soon the American scientists have revised their space concept. A lot of funds dropped to ensure the fire resistance of all spacecraft. And soon from the USSR came the news of the death of space flight cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov. Space demanded the Earthmen victims.
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