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Теория игр защитит от инопланетянIf aliens exist, how to enter into contact with them? Messages sent into space, yet unanswered. And the famous astrophysicist Stephen Hawking believes that the attempts to get in touch risky: who knows what to expect from brothers on reason? According to Harold de + from the Austrian Institute of science and technology, to help here can game theory.

Game theory is called a mathematical method of studying of optimal strategies in games. This game is the process in which two or more parties that are struggling for the realization of their interests. Each of them has its own objective and strategy, which can lead to win or lose depending on the behavior of other players.

The researcher argues that in this case a situation arises that in game theory is called "prisoner's dilemma". For example, the dummy and a Donut from the famous fairytale at the same time independently from each other, were arrested for undermining the capitalist system on the moon. The police believed that both acted in collusion. Then he offered a deal: if one testifies against the other, and he keeps silent, it is the first release for the help the investigation, but the second gets the maximum sentence.

If both refuse to testify, and they are judged on a lighter article (also undermine the regime, but not in collusion) and sentenced to six months in prison... If they agree with each other, give each two years. So the choice is for everyone, but none of them knows how supplied.

Here the same story, believes Vladar. Both sides are free to pass messages into space or not to transfer such, but the maximum result - contact is possible only in case, if the parties will not be silent.

After spending the mathematical analysis of this dilemma, the scientist came to the conclusion that in order to develop an optimal strategy, you must consider the factor of risk - for example, the desire of one or another civilization lead interstellar war, as well as the factor of "remuneration". That is what bonuses the Terrans can fuck with this contact?

The greatest benefit in communication with extraterrestrial civilizations we usually see in the exchange of knowledge and technologies. But it is not the fact that the aliens will give us good - maybe it's not in their interest...

For example, "factor remuneration" would be obvious. Then both sides could use a hybrid strategy, that is, to send signals into space, but rarely. After all, if the second civilization for a long time searches eighbours", then even one targeted the radio signal will attract her attention.

This is, firstly, reduce the chance of coming in contact with hostile civilization, because the messages will not be transmitted continuously. Secondly, this tactic will significantly reduce the cost of space radio communications, which are now too high. Since the frequency with which transmitted signals, and is inversely proportional to the risk factor, given that we do not know what it is this risk, it makes sense to conduct such broadcasts "with extremely low frequency", says Vladar.

In turn, Seth Shostak of the SETI Institute (USA) stated that we have too little information to apply such methods of game theory. For example, it is possible that aliens are not looking for us, simply because they didn't need us. By the way, not so long ago Shostak put forward the hypothesis that if there is civilization, which is even slightly more developed than ours, then she may use his star as a gravitational lens that can capture light from any source, say, from a distance of up to 500 light years.

Thus, "brothers" should have to discover our existence once appeared on Earth torches and lanterns... If they wanted to give us a signal that would have done it by using light pulses. But we owing to insufficient level of technology is not yet able to commit them.

At the same time - what if the concept proposed by Harold+, already come to mind some of the representatives of extraterrestrial civilization, and they also decided on a case to transfer "with extremely low frequency"? By the way, on 15 August 1977 astronomer Jerry Ayman already caught powerful narrowband signal of extraterrestrial origin. But identify it failed, as it cannot be repeated. Overall, great value "message" then never gave. Maybe in vain?
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