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Viewings: 7057How in the Universe appeared a magnetic field? Before, it was believed that this could not happen immediately after the Big Bang - these fields appeared only with the birth of the first stars. However, new studies of American and German scientists say that is really weak magnetism could arise earlier. But how exactly did this happen?
Research of electromagnetic fields - wide field in modern science. They are exploring on Earth and in all its shells in the near-earth space, Solar system planets and their satellites in the heliosphere and abroad - in the boundless space of the Universe.
Electromagnetic field ubiquitous: they rapidly flying relativistic particles of cosmic rays, the Sun demonstrates scientists continuous transformation of the complex hierarchy of their electromagnetic fields, a variety of magnetism of the planets of the Solar system, and the objects and fields of the distant cosmos simply boggle the imagination of its electromagnetic fields! A reasonable question arises - how created a magnetic field in the Universe, how they have changed over the leaking of 13.4 billion years of existence of the universe?
At the initial moment of the Big Bang almost instantly born great-the universe is in the form incredibly heated gas clouds. It got colder, extending in space, it was formed of Prachatice, joined up pretty quickly in the simplest atoms. But to predict the emergence of the magnetic field in this system is absolutely impossible! Therefore, it is born later. How is started and developed a process by which appeared all of a magnetic field, so powerfully presented in the modern world?
The riddle trying to unravel the specialists Reinhard Soliciter from Institute of theoretical physics of the Ruhr University in Bochum (Germany) and Peter Yun of the University of Maryland (USA), they put forward a new hypothesis: the magnetic field will arise later the Big Bang of embryonic very weak form of magnetism. Virtual germ of this phenomenon are generated randomly in the cloud of matter, even before the birth of primordial star phone
When the age of the Universe was equal to about 380 thousand years, the temperature of the primitive clouds decreased, formed the areas with different density and pressure, which contributed to the appearance of the first random embryonic formations of magnetism. These weak fields later increased, has been exposed to the first stellar winds and plasma flows from exploding stars.
Little accurate copyright definitions: unmagnetized nonrelativistic thermal plasma of electrons and protons spontaneously emits aperiodic turbulent fluctuations of the magnetic field, tiny module of these fluctuations is given by a simple formula, which includes only three physical parameters: ?e - normalized temperature thermal electrons, We - thermal plasma energy density, and g - plasma parameter.
For unmagnetized intergalactic medium, immediately after the start of reionizatsii, field strength from this mechanism is estimated at 2 x 10-16 G in the cosmic voids (Wagah) and 2 x 10-10 G protogalactic. Both values are too weak to affect the dynamics of the plasma. Taking into account the viscous damping these estimates still fall to 2 x 10-21 G in the space void and 2 x 10-12 G protogalactic.
Next is a simple miracle of birth magnetic fields: a shift or compression intergalactic and protogalactical environment at the first supernova explosions in vast regions of their star reinforce these metamorphoses "seeded" field! They become impure, and already the magnetic strength of the recovery act on the gas dynamics, marshalling and adjusting the temperature ?e. Like that of embryonic "seeds" magnetic fields in the hot plasma cloud of charged protons, electrons, nuclei of helium and lithium, where these magnetic fields are oriented arbitrarily, that is, in any direction, born of their organization - has emerged oriented magnetic field.
Michael Riordan, University of California at Santa Cruz (USA) formulates explained: "Magnetism wherever there is a stream of charged particles. Lift the compass to the wire to DC, and you will see how will move the arrow. But if charged particles lot and they scatter in all directions, as it was in the early Universe to cool plasma and education of atoms, the average current is everywhere equal to zero, so the macroscopic scale magnetism no". To gain arising magnetism took heavy elements like Nickel or iron - they were synthesized in fusion processes in supernova explosions.
When formed stars and most massive of them began at the end of life to explode, squeezing the environment while saturating it with heavy elements, the combination of stellar wind and explosions began to push small magnetic fields, squeezing them, stretching and smoothing of wind direction. Now scientists see and solve the striking effects of transformation of magnetic fields in space: in our sole and the nearest star, the Sun's magnetic processes command a 22-year cycle of solar magnetic fields, providing the 11-year sunspot cycle.
The magnetic field of the solar corona keep hot plasma, their transformation causes the coronal emission of substances and prominences, and pop of a magnetic field on the Sun stimulate the most powerful manifestation of the activity - solar flare! The solar wind, passing away from the Sun in the form of plasma flows and fills all space of the heliosphere, is the interplanetary magnetic field, varying in limits from several to tens of nTl. And on the planets with a magnetic field intensity and magnetic ionospheric storms, flash variety of Aurora.
In conclusion it should be noted that the inexhaustible variety of electromagnetic fields in the Universe - an inexhaustible source of future discoveries.
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